M. M. H. A. Kareem

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BACKGROUND Epidemic leptospirosis is increasingly being reported from northern Kerala during the monsoon months. We investigated the risk factors for mortality during the 2002 epidemic. METHODS Three hundred and forty patients suspected to have leptospirosis during the epidemic were studied by clinical examination, laboratory investigations and Leptospira(More)
Hypovolemic shock class 1 and mild to moderate dehydration are associated with normal or minimal changes in vital signs. Biochemical values markedly change only in advanced hypovolemia. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this(More)
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