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BACKGROUND An outbreak of acute encephalitis of unknown origin with high case fatality (183 of 329 cases) was reported in children from Andhra Pradesh state in southern India during 2003. We investigated the causative agent. METHODS Cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocyte co-cultures were used to isolate the causative agent from clinical samples.(More)
the epidemic PCR-ribotype 001. In particular, the identity between the 2 PCR ribotypes was 100% for the HMW proteins and 77% for the LMW proteins. This study provides convincing evidence that the S-layer is well conserved in C. diffi cile PCR-ribotype 027 strains and has high identity with the slpA of the epidemic PCR-ribotype 001. Because C. diffi cile(More)
Location awareness among the participating nodes is one of the crucial requirements in designing of solutions for various issues related to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper discusses about a range free localization mechanism for WSN that operate in a three dimensional space. in this scheme, the sensor network is supposed to be comprised of mobile(More)
An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in northern India in 2006. Attempts to identify an etiologic agent in cerebrospinal fluid by using reverse transcription-PCR showed positivity to enterovirus (EV) in 66 (21.6%) of 306 patients. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of PCR products from 59 (89.3%) of 66 specimens showed similarity with EV-89 and(More)
During the Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic in 1988 at Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, 34 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with 16 matching sera from 34 anti JEV IgM positive (confirmed JE) and 24 CSF samples with 4 matching sera from 24 anti JEV IgM negative (clinical encephalitis) patients were collected and tested for presence of JEV specific IgG by ELISA.(More)
Japanese encephalitis is an acute infection of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The importance of an effective humoral response in preventing JEV infection has already been established, although the contribution of cellular immunity remains unclear. This study used an experimental murine model to understand the(More)
During investigations into the outbreak of encephalitis in 1996 in the Kerala state in India, an arbovirus was isolated from a Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito pool. It was characterized as a Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus cross-reactive arbovirus by complement fixation test. A plaque reduction-neutralization test was performed using hyperimmune(More)
In India, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains one of the major causative agents of pediatric encephalitis. Macrophages support various neurotropic viruses and influence the immune response. However, the functional status of human macrophages during JEV infection remains unidentified. In this study, we examined the cytokine response and co-stimulatory(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the members of JEV serocomplex group are pathogens of global health concern. The co-circulation of these viruses poses challenges in effective diagnostics due to antigenic similarity between the E-protein of these viruses. The present study aimed to design chimeric peptides and study the immune(More)