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The activation of T cells through interaction of their T-cell receptors with antigenic peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a crucial step in adaptive immunity. Here we use three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy to visualize individual peptide-I-E(k) class II MHC complexes labelled(More)
The recognition of foreign antigens by T lymphocytes is essential to most adaptive immune responses. It is driven by specific T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) binding to antigenic peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules on other cells. If productive, these interactions promote the formation of an immunological synapse. Here we show that(More)
Alphabeta T lymphocytes are able to detect even a single peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. This is despite clear evidence, at least with CD4+ T cells, that monomeric ligands are not stimulatory. In an effort to understand how this remarkable sensitivity is achieved, we constructed soluble(More)
T cell recognition typically involves both the engagement of a specific T cell receptor with a peptide͞major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and a number of accessory interactions. One of the most important interactions is between the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on the T cell and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on(More)
T cell selection and maturation in the thymus depends on the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and different self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules. We show that the affinity of the OT-I TCR for its endogenous positively selecting ligands, Catnb-H-2Kb and Cappa1-H-2Kb, is significantly lower than for previously reported(More)
T cell sensitivity to antigen is intrinsically regulated during maturation to ensure proper development of immunity and tolerance, but how this is accomplished remains elusive. Here we show that increasing miR-181a expression in mature T cells augments the sensitivity to peptide antigens, while inhibiting miR-181a expression in the immature T cells reduces(More)
The present study determined the biochemical and pharmacological effects of PD 128907 [R-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol], a dopamine (DA) receptor agonist that shows a preference for the human D3 receptor. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO K1), PD 128907 displaced [3H]spiperone in a(More)
Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits(More)
In both immunoglobulins (Ig) and T cell receptors (TCR), the rearrangement of V, D, and J region sequence elements during lymphocyte maturation creates an enormous degree of diversity in an area referred to as the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) loop. Variations in the particular V, D, and J elements used, precise points of recombination, and(More)
BACKGROUND Thermal stimuli delivered to skin of the arms or legs can produce a sensation of two distinct pains. These pains have been associated with activity in A-delta (first pain) and C-fiber (second pain) nociceptive fibers, respectively. Under appropriate conditions first pain decreases in intensity (adaptation) while second pain increases in intensity(More)