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The activation of T cells through interaction of their T-cell receptors with antigenic peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a crucial step in adaptive immunity. Here we use three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy to visualize individual peptide-I-E(k) class II MHC complexes labelled(More)
The recognition of foreign antigens by T lymphocytes is essential to most adaptive immune responses. It is driven by specific T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) binding to antigenic peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules on other cells. If productive, these interactions promote the formation of an immunological synapse. Here we show that(More)
Alphabeta T lymphocytes are able to detect even a single peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. This is despite clear evidence, at least with CD4+ T cells, that monomeric ligands are not stimulatory. In an effort to understand how this remarkable sensitivity is achieved, we constructed soluble(More)
T cell recognition typically involves both the engagement of a specific T cell receptor with a peptide͞major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and a number of accessory interactions. One of the most important interactions is between the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on the T cell and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on(More)
T cell selection and maturation in the thymus depends on the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and different self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules. We show that the affinity of the OT-I TCR for its endogenous positively selecting ligands, Catnb-H-2Kb and Cappa1-H-2Kb, is significantly lower than for previously reported(More)
T cell sensitivity to antigen is intrinsically regulated during maturation to ensure proper development of immunity and tolerance, but how this is accomplished remains elusive. Here we show that increasing miR-181a expression in mature T cells augments the sensitivity to peptide antigens, while inhibiting miR-181a expression in the immature T cells reduces(More)
The present study determined the biochemical and pharmacological effects of PD 128907 [R-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol], a dopamine (DA) receptor agonist that shows a preference for the human D3 receptor. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO K1), PD 128907 displaced [3H]spiperone in a(More)
In both immunoglobulins (Ig) and T cell receptors (TCR), the rearrangement of V, D, and J region sequence elements during lymphocyte maturation creates an enormous degree of diversity in an area referred to as the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) loop. Variations in the particular V, D, and J elements used, precise points of recombination, and(More)
BACKGROUND Thermal stimuli delivered to skin of the arms or legs can produce a sensation of two distinct pains. These pains have been associated with activity in A-delta (first pain) and C-fiber (second pain) nociceptive fibers, respectively. Under appropriate conditions first pain decreases in intensity (adaptation) while second pain increases in intensity(More)
Productive T cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is normally accompanied by the formation of a cell-cell contact called the "immunological synapse." Our understanding of the steps leading up to this formation has been limited by the absence of tools for analyzing 3D surfaces and surface distributions as they change over time. Here we use a(More)