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In sprouting angiogenesis, specialized endothelial tip cells lead the outgrowth of blood-vessel sprouts towards gradients of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. VEGF-A is also essential for the induction of endothelial tip cells, but it is not known how single tip cells are selected to lead each vessel sprout, and how tip-cell numbers are(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) originate within the aortic-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region of the midgestation embryo, but the cell type responsible for their emergence is unknown since critical hematopoietic factors are expressed in both the AGM endothelium and its underlying mesenchyme. Here we employ a temporally restricted genetic tracing strategy to(More)
Endostatin is a Mr 20,000 COOH-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII that inhibits the growth of several primary tumors. We report here the cloning and expression of mouse endostatin in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Soluble recombinant protein expressed in yeast (15-20 mg/L) inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells(More)
We have studied two related proteins that contain a repeated amino acid motif homologous to the anti-angiogenic type 1 repeats of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). Complete sequence analysis revealed no other similarities with TSP1, but identified unique signal sequences, as well as metalloprotease and disintegrin-like domains in the NH(2) termini. We named these(More)
SPARC is a transiently expressed extracellular matrix-binding protein that alters cell shape and regulates endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we show that SPARC mRNA and protein are synthesized by endothelial cells during angiogenesis in vivo. SPARC and peptides derived from a cationic region of the protein (amino acids 113-130)(More)
The ability to target gene deletion to a specific cellular compartment via the Cre/loxP system has been a powerful tool in the analysis of broadly expressed genes. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic mouse line in which expression of Cre-recombinase is under the regulatory control of the VE-Cadherin promoter. Temporal distribution and activity of(More)
Mature human aorta contains a 70-kDa versican fragment, which reacts with a neoepitope antiserum to the C-terminal peptide sequence DPEAAE. This protein therefore appears to represent the G1 domain of versican V1 (G1-DPEAAE(441)), which has been generated in vivo by proteolytic cleavage at the Glu(441)-Ala(442) bond, within the sequence(More)
β1 integrin has been shown to contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, adhesion and mechanosensation in vitro. Here we showed that deletion of β1 integrin at the onset of smooth muscle differentiation resulted in interrupted aortic arch, aneurysms and failure to assemble extracellular matrix proteins. These defects result in lethality(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation during development and in pathological conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that VEGF bioavailability is regulated extracellularly by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through intramolecular processing. Specifically, we show that a subset of MMPs can cleave(More)
Posttranscriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) is important for many aspects of development, homeostasis, and disease. Here, we show that reduction of endothelial miRNAs by cell-specific inactivation of Dicer, the terminal endonuclease responsible for the generation of miRNAs, reduces postnatal angiogenic response to a variety of stimuli,(More)