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This paper addresses, what determines that experienced forager honeybees return to places where they have previously exploited nectar. Although there was already some evidence that dance and trophallaxis can cause bees to return to feed, the fraction of unemployed foragers that follow dance or receive food from employed foragers before revisiting the feeder(More)
The aim of this study was to test whether honeybees develop reward expectations. In our experiment, bees first learned to associate colors with a sugar reward in a setting closely resembling a natural foraging situation. We then evaluated whether and how the sequence of the animals' experiences with different reward magnitudes changed their later behavior(More)
Early reports indicate that trophallaxis, i.e. the exchange of liquid food by mouth, may allow honeybees to assign nectar odours with predictive values to anticipate biological meaningful reward stimuli. Nevertheless, this type of learning has not been addressed directly. In the present study, pairs of animals were isolated to induce trophallaxis under(More)
We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension response (PER)(More)
Apis mellifera foragers perform waggle dances to communicate the presence of highly desirable nectar sources to their forager-mates. Each waggle dance consists of several waggle-runs (straight movements of the dancer closely aligned on the comb surface) that carry spatial information that the dance followers can use to locate the food source being(More)
The hippocampus and the parahippocampal region have been proposed to contribute to path integration. Mice lacking GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (GluA1(-/-) mice) were previously shown to exhibit impaired hippocampal place cell selectivity. Here we investigated whether path integration performance and the activity of grid cells of the medial entorhinal(More)
The cell wall of Candida albicans not only is the structure in which many biological functions essential for the fungal cells reside but also is a significant source of candidal antigens. The major cell wall components that elicit a response from the host immune system are proteins and glycoproteins, the latter being predominantly mannoproteins. Both the(More)
Early studies indicate that Apis mellifera bees learn nectar odours within their colonies. This form of olfactory learning, however, has not been analysed by measuring well-quantifiable learning performances and the question remains whether it constitutes a 'robust' form of learning. Hence, we asked whether bees acquire long-term olfactory memories within(More)
We asked whether and how a sequence of a honeybee's experience with different reward magnitudes changes its subsequent unconditioned proboscis extension response (PER) to sucrose stimulation of the antennae, 24 hours after training, in the absence of reward, and under otherwise similar circumstances. We found that the bees that had experienced an increasing(More)