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The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies carries a high morbidity, mortality (10–90%) and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the United States is 150000 cases, but this figure has been challenged and may be different in Europe. Part of the(More)
H(2)(15)O-PET was used to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow in response to auditory stimulation in patients in the vegetative state. Five patients in a vegetative state of hypoxic origin were compared with 18 age-matched controls. In addition, the cerebral metabolism of these patients and 53 age-matched controls was studied using(More)
BACKGROUND Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted self or environment awareness but are unable to communicate consistently and reliably. Therefore, better understanding of cerebral noxious processing in these patients is of clinical, therapeutic, and ethical relevance. METHODS We studied brain activation induced by bilateral(More)
The locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively deefferented, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. Acute ventral pontine lesions are its most common cause. People with such brainstem lesions often remain comatose for some days or weeks, needing artificial respiration and then(More)
BACKGROUND The minimally conscious state (MCS) is a recently defined clinical condition; it differs from the persistent vegetative state (PVS) by the presence of inconsistent, but clearly discernible, behavioral evidence of consciousness. OBJECTIVE To study auditory processing among patients who are in an MCS, patients who are in a PVS, and healthy(More)
The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a devastating medical condition characterized by preserved wakefulness contrasting with absent voluntary interaction with the environment. We used positron emission tomography to assess the central processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the PVS. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were measured during(More)
BACKGROUND The neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. In this study, we used positron emission tomography in 11 healthy volunteers to identify the brain areas in which hypnosis modulates cerebral responses to a noxious stimulus. METHODS The protocol used a factorial design with two factors: state(More)
BACKGROUND A major challenge in the management of severely brain-injured patients with altered states of consciousness is to estimate their residual perception of the environment. OBJECTIVE To investigate the integrity of detection of one's own name in patients in a behaviorally well-documented vegetative state (VS), patients in a minimally conscious(More)
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues as a contributor to the morbidity and mortality of patients in intensive care units throughout the world, imparting tremendous human and financial costs. During the last ten years there has been a decline in ARDS mortality without a clear explanation. The American-European Consensus Committee on ARDS(More)