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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effecthas proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P.(More)
Pulse oximetry was performed on 77 children admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) to the children's ward in Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea over a 4-month period in 2002. Clinical findings were correlated with different levels of hypoxaemia, <93%, <90% and <85%. Cyanosis, head nodding and drowsiness were good(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality from severe pediatric falciparum malaria appears low in Oceania but Plasmodium vivax is increasingly recognized as a cause of complications and death. The features and prognosis of mixed Plasmodium species infections are poorly characterized. Detailed prospective studies that include accurate malaria diagnosis and detection of(More)
Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We(More)
BACKGROUND The erythrocyte polymorphism, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) (which results from a 27-base pair deletion in the erythrocyte band 3 gene, SLC4A1Δ27) protects against cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum; however, it is unknown whether this polymorphism also protects against P. vivax infection and disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS The(More)
The accuracy of the World Health Organization method of estimating malaria parasite density from thick blood smears by assuming a white blood cell (WBC) count of 8,000/μL has been questioned in several studies. Since epidemiological investigations, anti-malarial efficacy trials and routine laboratory reporting in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have all relied on(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax.(More)
BACKGROUND There are few detailed etiologic studies of severe anemia in children from malaria-endemic areas and none in those countries with holoendemic transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We examined associates of severe anemia in 143 well-characterized Papua New Guinean (PNG) children aged 0.5-10 years with(More)
BACKGROUND In areas of unstable malaria transmission, plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2) concentrations parallel total parasite biomass and thus infection severity. However, where transmission is more intense, plasma PfHRP-2 might not reliably predict complications and mortality. METHODS As part of a prospective case-control(More)
Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) were assessed in 554 children in Papua New Guinea 0.2-10 years of age who were hospitalized with culture-proven meningitis, probable meningitis, or non-meningitic illness investigated by lumbar puncture. Forty-seven (8.5%) had proven meningitis and 36 (6.5%) had probable meningitis. Neck stiffness, Kernig's and(More)