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Pulse oximetry was performed on 77 children admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) to the children's ward in Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea over a 4-month period in 2002. Clinical findings were correlated with different levels of hypoxaemia, <93%, <90% and <85%. Cyanosis, head nodding and drowsiness were good(More)
Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality from severe pediatric falciparum malaria appears low in Oceania but Plasmodium vivax is increasingly recognized as a cause of complications and death. The features and prognosis of mixed Plasmodium species infections are poorly characterized. Detailed prospective studies that include accurate malaria diagnosis and detection of(More)
BACKGROUND The erythrocyte polymorphism, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) (which results from a 27-base pair deletion in the erythrocyte band 3 gene, SLC4A1Δ27) protects against cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum; however, it is unknown whether this polymorphism also protects against P. vivax infection and disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS The(More)
Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) were assessed in 554 children in Papua New Guinea 0.2-10 years of age who were hospitalized with culture-proven meningitis, probable meningitis, or non-meningitic illness investigated by lumbar puncture. Forty-seven (8.5%) had proven meningitis and 36 (6.5%) had probable meningitis. Neck stiffness, Kernig's and(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax.(More)
BACKGROUND In areas of unstable malaria transmission, plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP-2) concentrations parallel total parasite biomass and thus infection severity. However, where transmission is more intense, plasma PfHRP-2 might not reliably predict complications and mortality. METHODS As part of a prospective case-control(More)
Many human genetic associations with resistance to malaria have been reported, but few have been reliably replicated. We collected data on 11,890 cases of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and 17,441 controls from 12 locations in Africa, Asia and Oceania. We tested 55 SNPs in 27 loci previously reported to associate with severe malaria. There was(More)
BACKGROUND Although routine lumbar puncture (LP) is often recommended as part of the assessment of fever-associated seizures in children, accumulating evidence questions its value and reveals a decrease in its frequency. Our primary hypothesis was that children who present with a single seizure but with no clinical signs of meningism or coma do not require(More)
BACKGROUND There are few detailed etiologic studies of severe anemia in children from malaria-endemic areas and none in those countries with holoendemic transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We examined associates of severe anemia in 143 well-characterized Papua New Guinean (PNG) children aged 0.5-10 years with(More)