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We show that many salient hemodynamic flow properties, which have been difficult or impossible to assess in microvessels in vivo, can be estimated by using microviscometry and fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry in microvessels >20 microm in diameter. Radial distributions in blood viscosity, shear stress, and shear rate are obtained and used to(More)
High-resolution near-wall fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) was used in mouse cremaster muscle venules in vivo to measure velocity profiles in the red cell-depleted plasma layer near the endothelial lining. micro-PIV data of the instantaneous translational speeds and radial positions of fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.47 microm)(More)
When humans switched from hunting honeybee colonies living scattered in the wild to keeping them in hives crowded in apiaries, they may have greatly increased disease transmission between colonies. The effects of clustering colonies were studied. Two groups of 12 colonies, with hives crowded or dispersed, were established in a common environment and left(More)
To better understand the mechanisms that regulate stem cell identity and function, we sought to identify genes that are preferentially expressed by stem cells and critical for their function in multiple tissues. Prdm16 is a transcription factor that regulates leukaemogenesis, palatogenesis and brown-fat development, but which was not known to be required(More)
In addition to rigidity, matrix composition, and cell shape, dimensionality is now considered an important property of the cell microenvironment which directs cell behavior. However, available tools for cell culture in two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) environments are difficult to compare, and no tools exist which provide 3D shape control(More)
OBJECTIVE To study rolling of mouse neutrophils on E-selectin and ICAM-1 in an ex vivo flow chamber system. METHODS The authors developed a small autoperfused flow chamber (20 x 200-microm cross section) that allows direct visualization of cells with and without fluorescent labeling and does not require recirculation of blood. RESULTS Neutrophils rolled(More)
In response to growing needs for quantitative biochemical and cellular assays that address whether the extracellular matrix (ECM) acts as a mechanochemical signal converter to co-regulate cellular mechanotransduction processes, a new assay is presented where plasma fibronectin fibers are manually deposited onto elastic sheets, while force-induced changes in(More)
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) promotes the induction of bone growth and is widely used in spine surgery to enhance arthrodesis. Recombinant human BMP-2 has been associated with a variety of complications including ectopic bone formation, adjacent-level fusion, local bone resorption, osteolysis, and radiculitis. Some of the(More)