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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)--which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system--as candidates for primary determinants of risk(More)
We have sequenced the genome of a second Drosophila species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and compared this to the genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, a primary model organism. Throughout evolution the vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same chromosome arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled, leading to a(More)
Demand for DNA sequence information has never been greater, yet current Sanger technology is too costly, time consuming, and labor intensive to meet this ongoing demand. Applications span numerous research interests, including sequence variation studies, comparative genomics and evolution, forensics, and diagnostic and applied therapeutics. Several emerging(More)
GelScann(1.0) is a user-friendly program that accurately quantitates DNA from CCD imaged agarose gels. The algorithm automatically locates lanes, locates bands within a given lane, and quantitates the intensity of each band. GelScann (1.0) uses a statistical method to discriminate DNA from local background fluorescence. The sensitivity of the LaneFinder and(More)
A gastroenterologist was convicted of attempted second-degree murder by injecting his former girlfriend with blood or blood-products obtained from an HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patient under his care. Phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 sequences were admitted and used as evidence in this case, representing the first use of phylogenetic analyses in a criminal(More)
A class of dyes, BODIPY fluorophores, has been identified for automated DNA sequencing that has improved spectral characteristics compared with conventional fluorescein and rhodamine dyes. Single and double BODIPY dye primers were characterized in commercially available DNA sequencers and showed uniform electrophoretic mobilities and high fluorescence(More)