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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The activities of cyclin D-dependent kinases serve to integrate extracellular signaling during G1 phase with the cell-cycle engine that regulates DNA replication and mitosis. Induction of D-type cyclins and their assembly into holoenzyme complexes depend on mitogen stimulation. Conversely, the fact that D-type cyclins are labile proteins guarantees that the(More)
An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system with glyphosate selection has been developed for the large-scale production of transgenic plants. The system uses 4-day precultured immature embryos as explants. A total of 30 vectors containing the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium strain CP4 (aroA:CP4), which confers(More)
The widely prevailing view that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) are solely negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is challenged here by observations that normal up-regulation of cyclin D- CDK4 in mitogen-stimulated fibroblasts depends redundantly upon p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack genes(More)
A constitutively active form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) was synthesized under control of a zinc-inducible promoter in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Zinc treatment of serum-starved cells activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and induced expression of cyclin D1. Newly synthesized cyclin D1 assembled with(More)
Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and a human carcinogen. Epidemiology studies link human arsenic exposure to various diseases and cancers, including liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms for arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity are poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms, we used the human cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Whether or not, obesity negatively influencing the outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains a controversial issue. Though observational studies focused on this topic, the reported conclusions remain inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate if obesity negatively affects: (1)(More)
The INK4a gene, one of the most frequently disrupted tumor suppressor loci in human cancer, encodes two unrelated proteins, p16INK4a and p19ARF, each of which is capable of inducing cell cycle arrest. Splicing of alternative first exons (1 alpha vs. 1 beta) to a common second exon within INK4a generates mRNAs in which exon 2 sequences are translated in two(More)
Fertile transgenic plants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. New Mexico Valencia A) were produced using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Leaf section explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pBI121 containing the genes for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII).(More)
PURPOSE To define the physiological and structural changes that may accompany aging in the normal mouse retina. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were maintained under cyclic light for either 2, 6, or 12 months. After rod- and cone-mediated corneal electroretinograms (ERG's) were recorded from anesthetized animals, the retinal structure was quantitatively examined.(More)