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Mice homozygous for the rd mutation display hereditary retinal degeneration and the classic rd lines serve as a model for human retinitis pigmentosa. In affected animals the retinal rod photoreceptor cells begin degenerating at about postnatal day 8, and by four weeks no photoreceptors are left. Degeneration is preceded by accumulation of cyclic GMP in the(More)
The Drosophila ninaE gene was isolated by a multistep protocol on the basis of its homology to bovine opsin cDNA. The gene encodes the major visual pigment protein (opsin) contained in Drosophila photoreceptor cells R1-R6. The coding sequence is interrupted by four short introns. The positions of three introns are conserved with respect to positions in(More)
Pineal opsin (P-opsin), an opsin from chick that is highly expressed in pineal but is not detectable in retina, was cloned by the polymerase chain reaction. It is likely that the P-opsin lineage diverged from the retinal opsins early in opsin evolution. The amino acid sequence of P-opsin is 42 to 46 percent identical to that of the retinal opsins. P-opsin(More)
Chimeric gene fusions between 4.4 kb of rod opsin 5' flanking sequence fused to a diphtheria toxin gene and 4.4 kb or 500 bp of rod opsin 5' flanking sequence fused to the E. coli IacZ gene were used to generate transgenic mice for analysis of cell type-specific expression and temporal and spatial distribution of reporter gene product during retinal(More)
Cone photoreceptors in the murine retina are patterned by dorsal repression and ventral activation of S opsin. TR beta 2, the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor beta isoform 2, regulates dorsal repression. To determine the molecular mechanism by which TR beta 2 acts, we compared the spatiotemporal expression of TR beta 2 and S opsin from embryonic day (E) 13(More)
A circadian clock regulates a number of diverse physiological functions in the vertebrate eye. In this study, we show that mRNA for the red-sensitive cone pigment, iodopsin, fluctuates with a circadian rhythm in chicken retina. Transcript levels increase in the late afternoon just prior to the time of cone disc shedding. Furthermore, iodopsin mRNA levels(More)
A full-length cDNA clone encoding the alpha' subunit of cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) from bovine cone photoreceptors was selected by probing a retinal library with a DNA fragment encoding the catalytic core of the rod cGMP PDE alpha subunit. Identity of the clone was confirmed by comparing its deduced sequence with cone PDE peptide sequences determined by(More)
The beta subunit of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene has been identified as the candidate gene for retinal degeneration in the rd mouse. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and the potential for gene repair, we have expressed a functional bovine cGMP PDE beta subunit in transgenic rd mice. One transgenic mouse line showed complete(More)
Arrestin, which plays a role in the termination of the visual transduction cascade, is one of several photoreceptor proteins whose mRNA levels are increased by light. Retinoic acid, a by-product of photoreceptor signaling and a potent modulator of hormonal transcription control, is one candidate for regulating the arrestin mRNA levels. Here we show that(More)