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Precise control of the innate immune response is essential to ensure host defense against infection while avoiding inflammatory disease. Systems-level analyses of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages suggested that SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN) might play a role in the TLR pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the(More)
Pathogens are detected by pattern recognition receptors that, upon activation, orchestrate an appropriate immune response. The TLRs and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are prototypic pattern recognition receptors that detect extracellular and cytosolic pathogens, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes has both extracellular(More)
Trisomy mapping is a powerful method for assigning genes to chicken microchromosome 16 (GGA 16). The single chicken nucleolar organizer region (NOR), the 2 major histocompatibility complex regions (MHC-Y and MHC-B), and CD1 genes were all previously assigned to GGA 16 using trisomy mapping. Here, we combined array comparative genomic hybridization with(More)
A causal relationship between the pathophysiological changes in the gut epithelium and altered gut microbiota with the onset of obesity have been suggested but not defined. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between impaired intestinal barrier function and microbial dysbiosis in the small and large intestine in rodent high-fat(More)
To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression(More)
Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from(More)
Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and(More)
Obesity is characterized by altered gut homeostasis, including dysbiosis and increased gut permeability closely linked to the development of metabolic disorders. Milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that selectively enhance the growth of specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and could be used as prebiotics. The aim of the study was(More)