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We present a new compilation of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a new dataset of low-redshift nearby-Hubble-flow SNe and new analysis procedures to work with these heterogeneous compilations. This " Union " compilation of 414 SN Ia, which reduces to 307 SNe after selection cuts, includes the recent large samples of SNe Ia from the Supernova Legacy Survey and(More)
Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The(More)
We present the high-energy neutrino Monte Carlo event generator ANIS (All Neu-trino Interaction Simulation). The program provides a detailed and flexible neutrino event simulation for high-energy neutrino detectors, such as AMANDA, ANTARES or ICECUBE. It generates neutrinos of any flavor according to a specified flux and propagates them through the Earth.(More)
This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes, used for the detection of Cherenkov light from upward traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using(More)
We report on work to increase the number of well-measured Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at high redshifts. Light curves, including high signal-to-noise HST data, and spectra of six SNe Ia that were discovered during 2001 are presented. Additionally, for the two SNe with z > 1, we present ground-based J-band photometry from Gemini and the VLT. These are among(More)
We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e)(More)
The envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a central role in the process of virus entry into the host cell and in the cytopathicity of the virus for lymphocytes bearing the CD4 molecule. Mutations that affect the ability of the envelope glycoprotein to form syncytia in CD4+ cells can be divided into five groups: those that(More)
The CD4 (T4) molecule is expressed on a subset of T lymphocytes involved in class II MHC recognition, and is probably the physiological receptor for one or more monomorphic regions of class II MHC (refs 1-3). CD4 also functions as a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exterior envelope glycoprotein (gp120) (refs 4-9), being essential for(More)