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In vertebrates, hematopoietic and vascular progenitors develop from ventral mesoderm. The first primitive wave of hematopoiesis yields embryonic red blood cells, whereas progenitor cells of subsequent definitive waves form all hematopoietic cell lineages. In this report we examine the development of hematopoietic and vasculogenic cells in normal zebrafish(More)
Tumors are unorganized organs that contain many different cell types. In the recent years, many studies have reported that primary tumors contain fibroblasts/myofibroblasts (carcinoma-associated fibroblasts), mesenchymal cells such as pericytes/mural cells and other vascular smooth muscle cells. Several different markers are used routinely to identify(More)
Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other(More)
PURPOSE Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) of the CNS is a highly malignant neoplasm primarily affecting young children, with a historic median survival ranging from 6 to 11 months. Based on a previous pilot series, a prospective multi-institutional trial was conducted for patients with newly diagnosed CNS ATRT. PATIENTS AND METHODS Treatment was(More)
The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of critical cancer gene mutations in clinical tumor specimens may predict patient outcomes and inform treatment options; however, high-throughput mutation profiling remains underdeveloped as a diagnostic approach. We report the implementation of a genotyping and validation algorithm that enables robust tumor mutation profiling in the(More)
Pediatric midline high-grade astrocytomas (mHGAs) are incurable with few treatment targets identified. Most tumors harbor mutations encoding p.Lys27Met in histone H3 variants. In 40 treatment-naive mHGAs, 39 analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, we find additional somatic mutations specific to tumor location. Gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1 occur in(More)
Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations(More)
Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor, is typically associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations. Surgically inaccessible midline tumors are therapeutically challenging, showing sustained tendency for progression and often becoming a chronic disease with substantial morbidities. Here we describe(More)
Craniopharyngiomas are epithelial tumors that typically arise in the suprasellar region of the brain. Patients experience substantial clinical sequelae from both extension of the tumors and therapeutic interventions that damage the optic chiasm, the pituitary stalk and the hypothalamic area. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations in CTNNB1(More)