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MHC class I molecules usually present peptides derived from endogenous antigens that are bound in the endoplasmic reticulum. Loading of exogenous antigens on class I molecules, e.g., in cross-priming, sometimes occurs, but the intracellular location where interaction between the antigenic fragment and class I takes place is unclear. Here we show that(More)
The variation of the Mhc-DQA1 and DQA2 loci of ten different primate species (hominoids and Old World monkeys) was studied in order to obtain an insight in the processes that generate polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II genes and to establish the evolutionary relationships of their alleles. To that end nucleotide sequences of 36(More)
Allelic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex class II DP locus of rhesus macaques was studied by sequencing exon 2 of Mamu-DPA1 and -DPB1 genes. The Mamu-DPA1 gene is apparently invariant, whereas the Mamu-DPB1 locus displays polymorphism. Here we report the characterization of 1 Mamu-DPA1 and 13 Mamu-DPB1 alleles which were compared with other(More)
Fifty-four chimpanzee Patr-DRB and five human HLA-DRB second exons were cloned and sequenced from thirty-five chimpanzees and four B-cell lines and compared with known Mhc-DRB sequences of these two species. Equivalents of the HLA-DRB1 * 02,-DRB1 * 03, -DRB1 * 07 allelic lineages and the HLA-DRB3,-DRB4, -DRB5, -DRB6, and -DRB7 loci were all found in the(More)
Comparison of 87 distinct Mhc-DQB sequences, obtained from 13 primate species, demonstrates that five out of eight trans-species Mhc-DQB allele lineages are at least 30 million years old and predate divergence of hominoid and Old World primate species. One lineage may be much older because its members are not only traced back in higher primates, but also(More)
Administration of a chemical or biological compound to a human being is never without risk. Although knowledge about risks increases during the development process, risks are still present even when a substance is marketed. Particular care is necessary when a new drug is given to healthy volunteers without previous human testing. General principles for such(More)
Genomic DNA samples, derived from a panel of 60 chimpanzees and 45 rhesus monkeys, were digested with the restriction enzymesTaq I andBgl II and hybridized with an HLA-DQ alpha chain cDNA probe. The results were compared with the data available on a human reference panel. Use of the restriction enzymeTaq I and the DQ alpha chain probe allows the detection(More)
Recently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type(More)
Nucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the second in-frame ATG triplet at positions 264 to 266 initiates the(More)