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Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the(More)
The present study investigated the effects of naturally fluctuating endogenous levels of oestrogen on the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Using an anaesthetized in vivo preparation, the results showed that the induction of LTP was augmented during the pro-oestrous(More)
Electromyograms were recorded from the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles and tendon force from the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 2 juvenile Rhesus monkeys before, during and after Cosmos flight 2229 and of ground control animals. Recording sessions were made while the Rhesus were performing a foot pedal motor task. Preflight testing indicated(More)
Continuous intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), tibialis anterior (TA), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of Rhesus during normal cage activity throughout 24-h periods and also during treadmill locomotion. Daily levels of MG tendon force and EMG activity were obtained from five monkeys with(More)
Two canine haemoplasma species have been recognised to date; Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc), which has been associated with anaemia in splenectomised or immunocompromised dogs, and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" (CMhp), recently described in an anaemic splenectomised dog undergoing chemotherapy. The study aim was to develop quantitative real-time PCR(More)
Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochondrial content(More)
Space programs support experimental investigations related to the unique environment of space and to the technological developments from many disciplines of both science and engineering that contribute to space studies. Furthermore, interactions between scientists, engineers and administrators, that are necessary for the success of any science mission in(More)
Standardised histological criteria are now available for the diagnosis of canine chronic hepatitis (CH). CH is common in dogs, but no studies have reported breed, age and gender distributions in the United Kingdom (UK). The objective of this study was to determine which breeds had an increased risk for developing CH in the UK and to report the age and(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in dogs is poorly understood. In human, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is considered central in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES To investigate TGF-β1 pathway in IPF. ANIMALS Lung tissues from 12 affected and 11 control dogs. Serum from 16 affected West Highland white Terriers(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary hypersensitivity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are important causes of chronic vomiting and diarrhea in cats. IL-23 has been recently found to be a key factor in the immunopathogenesis of IBD in humans but the involvement in IBD has not been investigated in cats. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES Expression of genes encoding Il-12p35 and(More)