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Many scientific disciplines ranging from physics, chemistry and biology to material sciences, geophysics and medical diagnostics need a powerful X-ray source with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range 1-4. This would allow, for example, time-resolved observation of chemical reactions with atomic resolution. Such radiation of extreme intensity, and tunable(More)
Experimental results are presented from vacuum-ultraviolet free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode. The generation of ultrashort radiation pulses became possible due to specific tailoring of the bunch charge distribution. A complete characterization of the linear and nonlinear modes of the SASE FEL(More)
In chromatic adapted barnacle median and lateral photoreceptors the two stable states of the photopigment (rhodopsin R and metarhodopsin M) were interconverted with intense, colored light flashes of 1 ms duration. Only after conversion of the red adapted photoreceptor in K+-Ringer solution with an intense flash the negative early receptor potential, ERP (of(More)
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