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A review of the basic theories of scaling in solid mechanics is presented. The problem of scaling is approached through dimensional analysis, laws of thermodynamics and asymptotic matching. Definitive conclusions on the relative importance of various sources of size effect (energy release, Weibull statistics, and crack fractality) tlrc drawn. The size(More)
Using the three-dimensional morphological data provided by computed tomography, finite element (FE) models can be generated and used to compute the stiffness and strength of whole bones. Three-dimensional constitutive laws capturing the main features of bone mechanical behavior can be developed and implemented into FE software to enable simulations on(More)
The formulation of the microplane model for concrete and development of model M4 in the three preceding companion papers in this study is here extended to large strains. After giving examples of certain difficulties with the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor in the modeling of strength and frictional limits on weak planes within the material, the(More)
The metabolic effects of electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus were investigated using indirect calorimetry. Stimulation of either the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) or the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) increased both respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure (EE) in 23 lightly anesthetized rats. The use of a muscle relaxant to reduce(More)
The acute effects of ethanol and tertiary-butanol, an alcohol which is not metabolized via the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway, on whole body metabolism were studied using indirect calorimetry. Ethanol, but not t-butanol, increased energy expenditure in food-deprived rats. Both ethanol and t-butanol reduced respiratory quotient (RQ), an index of overall body(More)
First it is shown by a simple one-dimensional example that stress-strain laws with softening cannot provide an objective description of response on the structural level. The phenomenon of discontinuous bifurcation from a uniform state is then analyzed in a general threedimensional setting. Localization conditions for isotropic damage models are derived in(More)