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While it has recently become possible to build spoken dialogue systems that interact with users in real-time in a range of domains, systems that support conversational natural language are still subject to a large number of spoken language understanding (SLU) errors. Endowing such systems with the ability to reliably distinguish SLU errors from correctly(More)
The drug 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; aka, mephedrone, MMCAT, "plant food", "bath salts") is a recent addition to the list of popular recreational psychomotor-stimulant compounds. Relatively little information about this drug is available in the scientific literature, but popular media reports have driven recent drug control actions in the UK and several(More)
We apply machine learning methods to automatically identify and predict problematic human-computer dialogues in a corpus collected during a wizard override trial of the How May I Help You task. The results we report show that it is possible to automatically learn a problematic dialogue classifier, and that this classifier can predict problematic dialogues(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent human studies suggest that recreational cannabis strains that are relatively high in cannabidiol (CBD) content produce less cognitive impairment than do strains with negligible CBD and similar Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. Self-selection in such studies means it is impossible to rule out additional variables which(More)
While the role of dextrorphan and dextromethorphan as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has received considerable research attention, their effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) has been less well characterized. Recent in vitro and in vivo research has suggested that these drugs noncompetitively block alpha3beta4*, alpha4beta2,(More)
Volatile organic solvent (inhalant) abuse continues to be a major health concern throughout the world. Of particular concern is the abuse of inhalants by adolescents because of its toxicity and link to illicit drug use. Toluene, which is found in many products such as glues and household cleaners, is among the most commonly abused organic solvents. While(More)
BACKGROUND There are no approved pharmacotherapies for d-methamphetamine (METH) addiction and existing therapies have limited efficacy. Advances in using immunotherapeutic approaches for cocaine and nicotine addiction have stimulated interest in creating a similar approach for METH addiction. This study investigated whether active vaccination against METH(More)
BACKGROUND Acute alcohol exposure produces cognitive deficits in adults but less is known about the acute cognitive effects of alcohol in adolescents. The cognitive impact of acute alcohol exposure includes deficits in discrimination and reversal learning, but traditional experimental approaches make it difficult to distinguish the effect of alcohol on(More)
Arachidonic acid, a fatty acid component of neuronal cell membranes, forms the backbone of endogenous ligands of the endocannabinoid system. The lipid nature of this system may make it particularly susceptible to changes in fat content of the diet, which may, in turn, affect endocannabinoid tone and subsequent changes in receptor expression or activity. The(More)
Adolescents of many mammalian species exhibit rapid physiological change that is accompanied by behaviors such as increased risk taking and social interaction with peers. Marijuana abusers frequently report that their initial use occurred during adolescence. Our goal was to determine whether the in vivo effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol(More)