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The role of knowledge in children's inferences was investigated in 3 experiments. Experiment 1 examined developmental changes in the role of categorical membership, perceptual appearance, and item complexity in inferences for natural kind and artifact concepts. Preschoolers (5-year-olds), second graders (8-year-olds), and fourth graders (10-year-olds) were(More)
UNLABELLED Language plays a critical role in the development of theory of mind (ToM). There is limited research, however, examining the role of specific components of language in ToM development for typical and clinical populations. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relative contributions of general grammar, grammatical tense markers,(More)
Initial characterizations of the communicative abilities of preschoolers stressed their egocentric nature. Recently, however, even 2-year-olds have been observed to adjust their speech appropriately in situations in which the listener provides feedback by signaling noncomprehension. The current study had an adult signal noncomprehension to the requests of(More)
The purpose of this article is to investigate observers' use of acoustic cues to arrive at judgments of the speaker's affective state and to address current methodological limitations. Ninety-nine female undergraduates rated the level of excitement, happiness, and anger of speech stimuli under three content-masking procedures: low-pass filtering, random(More)
The relation of attachment status to autobiographical memory was assessed in 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds. Of specific interest was the relation between attachment status and the emotional content of parent-child memory conversations. Forty-six mother-child dyads discussed four events designed to elicit positive and negative emotional themes. Both attachment(More)
Thirty-seven 3-year-old children, who had learned a 9-action event sequence ("making Play-Doh spaghetti") when they were 20 months old, returned to the lab to determine whether they would be able to verbally and/or behaviourally recall the event after a 12- to 22-month delay. Children originally participated in the event either one or three times and(More)
Children's memory for a specific episode of a repeated event was investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, eighty 4- and 7-year-olds experienced a standard novel event 1, 2, or 4 times, followed by an episodic event for those children who had multiple standard event experiences. The episodic event involved the addition of both schema-typical and(More)
The role of event knowledge in early language acquisition was investigated. Thirteen two-year-olds were observed interacting with their mothers over a five-week period. During weekly observational sessions, dyads interacted in both a familiar-event context and an unfamiliar-event context. Events were represented by complex toys (e.g. airport, marina, etc.).(More)