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Experiments are reported that assessed the ability of people, without vision, to locate the positions of objects from imagined points of observation that are related to their actual position by rotational or translational components. Theoretical issues addressed were whether spatial relations stored in an object-to-object system are directly retrieved or(More)
Although some studies have shown that a single view produces an orientation-free representation of place (C. 1984), others suggest that an orientation-specific representation is formed (J. J. Rieser, 1989). Five experiments are reported that together with existing studies, suggest that orientation-free performance requires a conjunction of study-test(More)
  • M J Sholl
  • 1987
A "point-to-unseen-targets" task was used to test two theories about the nature of cognitive mapping. The hypothesis that a cognitive map is like a "picture in the head" predicts that (a) the cognitive map should have a preferred orientation and (b) all coded locations should be equally available. These predictions were confirmed in Experiments 1 and 3 when(More)
  • M J Sholl
  • 1989
Sex differences on Piaget's water-level (horizontality) test are well established but poorly understood. In this article, correlates of female horizontality performance are systematically explored. Across the five experiments reported, it was found that female subjects who failed the water-level test (poor-horizontality female subjects) were selectively(More)
R. F. Wang and E. S. Spelke's (2000) finding that disorientation disrupts knowledge is consistent with egocentric but not allocentric coding of object location. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that egocentric coding may dominate early on but that once an allocentric representation is established, then target location is retrieved from it. This(More)
A single view of a room-sized path produces an orientation-specific memory representation, yet when memory is tested at a location on the path, orientation-free performance is observed. Either a virtual-views or an updating hypothesis can account for orientation-free performance by attributing it, respectively, to an orientation-free long-term-memory(More)
A sense of direction (SOD) computes the body's facing direction relative to a reference frame grounded in the environment. The authors report on three experiments in which they used a heading-recall task to tap the functioning of a SOD system and then correlated task performance with self-reported SOD as a convergent test of the task's construct validity.(More)