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Rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitiser, not only improves insulin sensitivity but also enhances insulin secretory capacity by ameliorating gluco- and lipotoxicity in beta cells. Rosiglitazone can stimulate insulin secretion at basal and high glucose levels via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway. We hypothesised that regulation of(More)
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) induces the differentiation of normal human keratinocytes, in part by increasing their basal intracellular calcium levels (Cai) over a period of hours. Agonists such as ATP acting through membrane receptors cause an immediate but transient increase in Cai accompanied by an increase in inositol trisphosphate (IP3).(More)
Extracellular calcium (Cao) stimulates the differentiation of keratinocytes; 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 1,25(OH)2D3) does likewise. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates calcium flux in other cells, we hypothesized that 1,25(OH)2D)3 acted through and promoted the effects of calcium on keratinocyte differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of(More)
Calpastatin, a specific calpain inhibitor was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity from grass prawn (Penaeus monodon) muscle by 100 degrees C heat-treatment, DEAE-Sephacel, and Q-Sepharose chromatographs. No significant change in the inhibitory activity of crude calpastatin was observed even after 20 min incubation at 100 degrees C, pH 7.0. The(More)
Squamous carcinoma cells (SCC) fail to differentiate under conditions that are favorable for the growth and differentiation of normal human keratinocytes. Human keratinocytes differentiate from a highly proliferative basal cell to a terminally differentiated cornified cell in culture in the presence of physiological levels of extracellular calcium.(More)
The methyl-directed DNA repair efficiency of a set of M13mp18 heteroduplexes containing 1-8 or 22 unpaired bases was determined by using an in vitro DNA mismatch repair assay. The unpaired bases of each heteroduplex residing at overlapping recognition sites of two restriction endonucleases allow independent assay of repair on either DNA strand. Our results(More)
22-oxa calcitriol (OCT) is a recently synthesized analog of calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) with potent biologic actions both in vivo and in vitro. Because it is considerably less hypercalcemic than 1,25(OH)2D3 when given in vivo, OCT is of potential use for the treatment of diseases, such as psoriasis, that respond to the antiproliferative, prodifferentiating(More)
While chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity, acute inflammation reduces food intake and leads to negative energy balance. Although both types of inflammation activate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signalling, it remains unclear how NF-κB activation results in opposite physiological responses in the two types of inflammation. The goal of this(More)
Calcium is essential for normal epidermal differentiation. Data from Northern and nuclear run-on analysis indicate that involucrin gene transcription is induced by 1.2 mM extracellular calcium. A 3.7 Kbp fragment of the involucrin gene, which contains 2.5 Kbp of upstream region, the transcription start site, and the first intron, was sub-cloned into the(More)
The mechanism of vaccinia virus-induced selective inhibition of host cell protein synthesis was studied in a nonpermissive (Chinese hamster ovary, CHO) and in a permissive mouse cell line ( L cells). Small polyadenylated RNAs obtained from uninfected and infected cells were fractionated into six size classes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The RNAs(More)
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