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Attention exerts a strong influence over neuronal processing in cortical areas. It selectively increases firing rates and affects tuning properties, including changing receptive field locations and sizes. Although these effects are well studied, their cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the cellular mechanisms, we combined iontophoretic(More)
Recent in vitro studies have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) selectively reduces the efficacy of lateral cortical connections via a muscarinic mechanism, while boosting the efficacy of thalamocortical/feed-forward connections via a nicotinic mechanism. This suggests that high levels of ACh should reduce center-surround interactions of neurons in primary(More)
Cortical processing is strongly influenced by the actions of neuromodulators such as acetylcholine (ACh). Early studies in anaesthetized cats argued that acetylcholine can cause a sharpening of orientation tuning functions and an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of neuronal responses in primary visual cortex (V1). Recent in vitro studies have(More)
Attention is often regarded as a mechanism by which attended objects become perceptually more salient, akin to increasing their contrast. We demonstrate that attention is better described as a mechanism by which task relevant information impacts on ongoing processing, while excluding task irrelevant information. We asked subjects to judge the orientation of(More)
We developed a novel design of an electrode-pipette combination (EPC) which allows access to brain structures in awake behaving primates without the need for guide tubes or to mechanically open the dura prior to electrode insertion. The EPC consists of an etched tungsten in glass electrode flanked by two pipettes which allow for local and highly controlled(More)
Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) selectively reduces the efficacy of lateral cortical connections via a muscarinic mechanism, while boosting the efficacy of thalamocortical/feed-forward connections via a nicotinic mechanism. This suggests that high levels of ACh should reduce centre-surround interactions of neurons in(More)
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