M J Packard

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Hatchlings of the North American painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) spend their first winter of life inside a shallow, subterranean hibernaculum (the natal nest) where they may be exposed for extended periods to ice and cold. Hatchlings seemingly survive exposure to such conditions by becoming supercooled (i.e., by remaining unfrozen at temperatures below the(More)
Use of energy reserves by embryos of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) is related to the hydric conditions to which eggs are exposed during incubation and to the net exchanges of water through the eggshells. Embryos developing inside eggs with a relatively favorable water balance use more of their energy reserves metabolically and grow larger(More)
Embryonic softshell turtles develop inside eggs exchanging little, if any, liquid water with the nest environment. Despite the consequent restriction on availability of water to support development, embryos convert most of the ammonia released in catabolism of proteins into soluble urea rather than insoluble urate, and thereby commit a portion of their(More)
Embryos of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui take up small quantities of yolk and yolk mineral early in incubation but increase their uptake of yolk reserves at later stages of development. Growth and accumulation of calcium and magnesium by embryos also occur slowly at first and at a higher rate later. Accumulation of calcium and magnesium(More)
Neonatal painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) spend their first winter inside the shallow, subterranean nest cavity where they completed embryogenesis. Consequently, hatchlings at high latitudes may be exposed to ice and cold during the winter. This study was undertaken to determine how long hatchlings withstand freezing at temperatures slightly below 0 degree(More)
Common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) lay nearly spherical, flexible-shelled eggs having an outer mineral layer composed of calcium carbonate in the aragonite form. The mineral layer is arranged into loosely organized groups of nodular shell units, with numerous spaces (or pores) between adjacent shell units. Shell units are structurally complex,(More)
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