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Several recent publications have drawn attention to the role of the thyroid hormone status of the mother on the future neuropsychological development of the child. The screening of pregnant women for clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism based on second trimester elevated maternal TSH values has been proposed. Here, we have summarized present(More)
To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and(More)
We have recently shown that it is not possible to restore euthyroidism completely in all tissues of thyroidectomized rats infused with T4 alone. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this is achieved when T3 is added to the continuous sc infusion of T4. Thyroidectomized rats were infused with placebo or T4 (0.80 and 0.90 microgram/100 g(More)
We have studied the effects of maternal thyroid status on the effectiveness of the rat placenta near term as a barrier for the transfer of T4 and T3 to the fetus. Dams were given methimazole to minimize the fetal contribution to the T4 and T3 pools, so that the iodothyronines found in the conceptus are ultimately of maternal origin. The dams were infused(More)
T4 and T3 have been measured by RIA in 10-12-day-old rat embryo-trophoblasts, and in 13-20-day-old embryos and placentas, as well as in a few samples of amniotic fluid. Both T4 and T3 were measured after extraction of the samples with ethanol, purification by paper chromatography, anion exchange resin, or both. T4 and T3 could be shown in all samples(More)
Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in mammalian brain maturation and function, in large part by regulating the expression of specific neuronal genes. In this tissue, the type 2 deiodinase (D2) appears to be essential for providing adequate levels of the active thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) during the developmental period. We have studied(More)
Iodothyronine type II 5'-deiodinase (5'D-II) activities were studied in cultures of rat brown adipocytes. In the presence of serum, the adrenergically stimulated 5'D-II activities were very low. In the absence of serum, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) analogues stimulated 5'D-II activity. Thyroxine (T4) inhibited these increases. Norepinephrine(More)
Treatment of male Wistar rats with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1000 mg/kg b.w.) for 3-30 days decreases circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) but does not affect triiodothyronine (T3). Time courses were determined for 5' deiodinase type I (5' D-I) activity in thyroid, liver, and kidney and 5' deiodinase type II (5' D-II) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT)(More)
Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with [125I]T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their [125I]T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the [125I]T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the(More)
To determine whether T4 has an intrinsic effect at the pituitary level, it would be important to block conversion of T4 to T3 completely. We have attempted to achieve this with iopanoic acid (IOP), a radiographic contrast agent. We have then measured in the same animals the effects of such treatment on the conversion of T4 to T3 or on the deiodination of T3(More)