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Marked sleepiness occurs during typical night shift work hours and this reduced alertness is associated with marked performance deficits. The effect of caffeine (versus placebo) upon sleepiness at night was studied using objective measures of physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness. Both measures show caffeine to reduce sleepiness at(More)
A 3-hour phase advance of sleep time was employed to produce a model of transient insomnia. The degree to which this manipulation was effective varied substantially among young, healthy normal sleepers. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine hypnotic compound, was effective in reversing the sleep disruption in those individuals displaying transient insomnia in this(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Various aspects of human performance were assessed in children after sleep loss. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen children (7 males, 9 females) between the ages of 10 and 14 years. DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS Children were randomly assigned to either a control (CTRL) group, with 11 hours in bed, or an experimental sleep restriction (SR) group, with 5(More)
Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to either a caffeine or a placebo group to investigate the alerting effects of caffeine at night. Subjects adhered to a simulated night-shift schedule for 5 consecutive nights. On the first 3 nights, 2 mg/kg caffeine was added to decaffeinated coffee at 2220 and 0120 hours for the caffeine group. On nights 4(More)
Physiological sleep tendency during a simulated night shift schedule was examined in 15 middle-aged subjects following daytime sleep after administration of triazolam or placebo. A double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design involving two tours of five laboratory nights and four daytime home sleep periods was used. Triazolam lengthened daytime sleep as(More)
Daytime sleep and nocturnal sleepiness were examined in 18 normal sleepers (9 young adults, 9 middle-age adults) for 5.5 days following acute sleep/wake schedule inversion. Triazolam and placebo were compared in a counterbalanced, crossover design. Triazolam improved daytime sleep, but did not produce significant changes in sleep tendency at night.(More)
This study examined the influence of morningness-eveningness on night shift sleepiness in 15 subjects. Sleepiness was assessed during a five-night protocol involving the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), repeated test of sustained wakefulness (RTSW) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Daytime sleep was estimated by sleep diaries and wrist actigraphy.(More)
OBJECTIVE The sedative effects of cetirizine (10 mg once daily), diphenhydramine (50 mg three times daily), and placebo, each administered during a 3-day period, were compared with objective measures of sleepiness and performance. METHODS Twelve atopic subjects received each of the three treatments for 3 consecutive days in a double-blind Latin square(More)
The sedative effect of 0.7 g/kg of 100% ethanol, ingested at 9:30 PM, was investigated to examine the combined effects of ethanol and circadian sleepiness/alertness levels. Fourteen healthy young adults participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. Each subject, on two separate occasions (placebo or ethanol), completed multiple sleep(More)
Twelve healthy subjects participated in three daytime work periods, in a double-blind repeated measures Latin square design. Subjects received cetirizine (10 mg), hydroxyzine (25 mg), or placebo at 0800. Performance was measured each day during eight 50-minute test periods on a simulated assembly line task between 0830 and 1700. Before entry into the study,(More)