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Predation is known to have both direct and indirect effects on nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the general stress paradigm (GSP) has been promoted as a theory for describing predator-mediated indirect effects on nutrient cycling. The GSP predicts that prey exposed to predators will produce glucocorticosteroids, which have a host(More)
A group of computer scientists and mathematicians at Brown University has been engaged in the study of computer graphics for the past eight years. During the course of these studies a variety of topics has been investigated, in particular, during the last few years, the use of microprogramming for implementing graphics systems. In early 1971, Professor(More)
The choice of predator foraging mode has important consequences for ecological communities. Foraging mode designations are often made on the basis of predator activity, yet activity can be affected by various environmental stimuli independent of changes in foraging mode. Structural complexity can reduce predator activity by either interfering with predator(More)
Covariation between population-mean phenotypes and environmental variables, sometimes termed a "phenotype-environment association" (PEA), can result from phenotypic plasticity, genetic responses to natural selection, or both. PEAs can potentially provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of a particular set of populations, but this requires a full(More)
When species distribution models (SDMs) are used to predict how a species will respond to environmental change, an important assumption is that the environmental niche of the species is conserved over evolutionary time-scales. Empirical studies conducted at ecological time-scales, however, demonstrate that the niche of some species can vary in response to(More)
Within natural habitats, phenotypes are shaped by many environmental factors. Consequently, heterogeneity of these factors can promote phenotypic divergence. However, because environments exhibit heterogeneity at different spatial scales, phenotypic divergence should also exhibit such scale-dependence. Using hierarchical linear models, I determined how(More)
An advantage of trait-based approaches to ecology is the ability to predict the response of a species assemblage to environmental change through trait–environment relationships. Because species assemblages are also known to be affected by spatial processes, variation in community-level traits may be similarly affected by spatial structure. Furthermore, the(More)
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