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Axis formation in Drosophila depends on correct patterning of the follicular epithelium and on signaling between the germ line and soma during oogenesis. We describe a method for identifying genes expressed in the follicle cells with potential roles in axis formation. Follicle cells are purified from whole ovaries by enzymatic digestion, filtration, and(More)
LR1 is a B cell-specific, sequence-specific DNA binding activity that regulates transcription in activated B cells. LR1 also binds Ig heavy chain switch region sequences and may function in class switch recombination. LR1 contains two polypeptides, of 106 kDa and 45 kDa, and here we report that the 106-kDa component of LR1 is nucleolin. This identification,(More)
The hnRNP D protein interacts with nucleic acids both in vivo and in vitro. Like many other proteins that interact with RNA, it contains RBD (or "RRM") domains and arg-gly-gly (RGG) motifs. We have examined the organization and localization of the human and murine genes that encode the hnRNP D protein. Comparison of the predicted sequences of the hnRNP D(More)
Rad51 is a highly conserved eukaryotic homolog of the prokaryotic recombination protein RecA, which has been shown to function in both recombinational repair of DNA damage and meiotic recombination in yeast. In primary murine B cells cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate heavy chain class switch recombination, Rad51 protein levels are(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a B cell mitogen which can stimulate murine primary B cells to proliferate and carry out immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. LPS can also function as an endotoxin, which may cause DNA damage and apoptosis in certain types of cells. We have previously reported that LPS-activated primary murine B cells contain(More)
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common cause of infertility in around 1–2% of women aged <40 years. However, the mechanisms that cause POI are still poorly understood. Here we showed that germ cell-specific knockout of an essential autophagy induction gene Atg7 led to subfertility in female mice. The subfertility of Atg7 deletion females was caused(More)
EBV is strongly associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, a B cell malignancy. In certain types of Burkitt's lymphoma, the c-myc gene has undergone translocation to the S regions associated with heavy chain switch recombination. It has not been established whether EBV infection induces recombination activities, which in turn promote translocation of c-myc, or(More)
To understand the regulation of enzymes that carry out immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination, we have assayed recombination of extrachromosomal substrates carrying switch region sequences in cell lines representing different stages of lymphoid cell development. Both pre-B and mature B cell lines supported switch substrate recombination, but(More)
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