Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facilitated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields… (More)
Feedstock quality of switchgrass for biofuel production depends on many factors such as morphological types, geographic origins, maturity, environmental and cultivation parameters, and storage. We report variability in compositions and enzymatic digestion efficiencies for three cultivars of switchgrass (Alamo, Dacotah and Shawnee), grown and harvested at… (More)
For this project, six chemical pretreatments were compared for the Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). For each pretreatment, a material balance was analyzed around the pretreatment,… (More)
Accellerase 1000 cellulase, Spezyme CP cellulase, β-glucosidase, Multifect xylanase, and beta-xylosidase were evaluated for hydrolysis of pure cellulose, pure xylan, and switchgrass solids from leading pretreatments of dilute sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, liquid hot water, lime, soaking in aqueous ammonia, and ammonia fiber expansion. Distinctive sugar… (More)
The US Department of Energy-funded Biomass Refining CAFI (Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation) project has developed leading pretreatment technologies for application to switchgrass and has evaluated their effectiveness in recovering sugars from the coupled operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Key chemical and physical… (More)
The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of cellulase loading and β-glucosidase supplementation on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Dacotah switchgrass. To assess the difference among various pretreatment methods, the profiles of sugars and intermediates were determined for differently treated substrates. For all pretreatments, 72 h… (More)
This work studied the benefits of adding different enzyme cocktails (cellulase, xylanase, β-glucosidase) to pretreated switchgrass. Pretreatment methods included ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute-acid (DA), liquid hot water (LHW), lime, lime+ball-milling, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The compositions of the pretreated… (More)
SPECT brain imaging using Iofetamine HC1 I-123 (IMP) has a great potential in the evaluation of various neurologic disorders. Transverse, coronal, and sagittal sectional IMP images obtained using a single head rotating gamma camera system are correlated with corresponding normal brain slices in this atlas.