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We have determined the nucleotide sequence of sacbrood virus (SBV), which causes a fatal infection of honey bee larvae. The genomic RNA of SBV is longer than that of typical mammalian picornaviruses (8832 nucleotides) and contains a single, large open reading frame (179-8752) encoding a polyprotein of 2858 amino acids. Sequence comparison with other virus(More)
We have determined the complete genomic sequence of human astrovirus serotype 1 isolated in Newcastle upon Tyne. The genome is 6813 nucleotides long and contains three sequential open reading frames (ORFs). The two closest to the 5' end are linked by a ribosomal frameshifting motif and contain sequence motifs indicative of non-structural virus proteins:(More)
A new instrument for assessing social skills of schizophrenic patients, Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS), is a videotaped-based test with an examiner's administration and scoring manual. The test measures an examinee's ability to describe an interpersonal social problem, to derive a solution to the problem, and to enact a solution(More)
Caffeine is a commonly used drug that increases arousal, a condition associated with increased cholinergic activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex including the hippocampus. We have used the technique of microdialysis in association with microbore high-performance liquid chromatography to investigate the effects of caffeine on the extracellular levels of(More)
Sacbrood virus (SBV) infects larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), resulting in failure to pupate and death. Until now, identification of viruses in honeybee infections has been based on traditional methods such as electron microscopy, immunodiffusion, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Culture cannot be used because no honeybee cell lines are(More)
Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and(More)
This study assessed the role of human astrovirus (HAstV) in outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea among children attending child care centers (CCCs) and determined the infecting astrovirus antigenic types by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis. Eight astrovirus outbreaks occurred in 6 CCCs. Of 179 children with(More)
Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is one of several picorna-like viruses that infect insects; sequence analysis has revealed distinct differences between these agents and mammalian picornaviruses. RhPV has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of about 10 kb; unlike the genomes of Picornaviridae, however, this genome contains two long open reading(More)
Between September 1st, 2002 and August 31st, 2003, a panel of 1,000 stool samples was collected from patients presenting with diarrhea in the three major urban centers of Saudi Arabia; Riyadh, Mecca, and Jeddah. Each sample was tested for rotavirus, and astrovirus by ELISA, G and P type was determined for all rotaviruses. Adenoviruses were sought by(More)
A one-step reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) method in combination with RNase treatment and low copy number samples was developed in order to examine the effect of temperature on the ability of virus capsids to protect their RNA content. The method was applied to a non-cultivable virus (GII.4 norovirus) and(More)