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To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were divided into(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the muscle plasma membrane of children with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) at protein and mRNA levels. The biopsied six muscles with FCMD, six histochemically normal muscles and eight disease control muscles were analyzed by means of immunoblots,(More)
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein that is widely distributed in human tissues. However, the precise functional role of AQP4 in skeletal muscle tissue has not yet been determined. Expression of AQP4 was reported to be reduced in muscle tissue from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. In the regenerating phase of skeletal muscle, AQP4 expression(More)
The question whether aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is expressed in normal human skeletal muscle at mRNA and protein levels has been examined, since AQP3 has been reported to be coexpressed with AQP4 in various kinds of tissues other than skeletal muscle. The gel electrophoresis of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product of total RNA(More)
We investigated the ultrastructural localization of α1-syntrophin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in normal human skeletal myofibers and analyzed their relation to each other and to dystrophin using single and double immunogold-labeling electron microscopy. Single immunolabeling showed antibodies to α1-syntrophin and nNOS on the inner surface of(More)
BACKGROUND In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), previous freeze-fracture electron microscopic studies demonstrated that muscle plasma membrane contained markedly decreased numbers of orthogonal arrays. Recent investigations showed that orthogonal arrays were composed of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) molecules, a member of the water channel protein family. (More)
We generated the muscle aquaporin 4 (AQP4) overexpressing transgenic mice in order to investigate the skeletal muscle pathology at RNA and protein levels. At RNA level, the AQP4 mRNA expression of soleus, EDL and cardiac muscles in Tg mice was statistically significantly higher than that in wild mice by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain(More)
Aquaporin (AQP) 4 is a water-specific channel protein and is abundant in central nervous tissues and skeletal muscles. Recently, the AQP4 molecule has been increasingly highlighted in its pathophysiological role of several neurological diseases, such as stroke, muscular dystrophy and neuromyelitis optica. We therefore measured the levels of AQP4 mRNA and(More)
To examine aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in skeletal muscle tissue precisely, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at RNA level and immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy at protein level. The RT-PCR study of total RNA from normal human skeletal muscle showed a strong single band of AQP1. At(More)
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a recently discovered membrane bound water-selective channel and has been described at the light microscopic level to be predominantly expressed in the astrocytes of the brain, especially at the perivascular astrocyte endfoot processes. Alpha1-syntrophin, a member of dystrophin-associated protein, has also been reported at the light(More)