M. I. Lipshits

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Adaptation of motor control to weightlessness was studied during a 7-day spaceflight. The maintenance of control of upright posture was examined during a voluntary raising movement of the arm and during the voluntary raising on tiptoe. In order to evaluate the contribution of visual cues, three types of visual situations were examined: normal vision,(More)
1. When interacting with the environment, human arm movements may be prevented in certain directions (i.e., when sliding the hand along a surface) resulting in what is called a "constrained motion." In the directions that the movement is restricted, the subject is instead free to control the forces against the constraint. 2. Control strategies for(More)
A heavy or light object fell into the cup held between the thumb and the index finger of a sitting subject. The anticipatory muscle activity and the grip force applied to the cup depended on the object mass, whereas the temporal parameters, such as the moment of the start and the duration of muscle activity and the moment of the maximum grip force remained(More)
This study reveals the existence of a backward acceleration of the head prior to the onset of voluntary raising movements of the upper limb. This backward acceleration is produced by the displacement of the head-trunk as a whole. The anticipatory head movement is organized according to a sequence of activation and desactivation of the neck muscles, time(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gravity on the representation and storage of visual orientation information. On earth, measurements of response time and variability for a task of aligning remembered visual stimuli showed a distinct preference for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli when the body and gravitational axes were(More)
Adaptive properties of the human proprioceptive systems were studied during the French-Soviet orbital flight (Aragatz mission, December 1988). The present space experiment investigated the hypothesis that the modifications of both biomechanical and physiological conditions occurring under microgravity involve considerable reorganization of body perception(More)