M. I. Barlow

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TEM-1 β-lactamase is one of the most well-known antibiotic resistance determinants around. It confers resistance to penicillins and early cephalosporins and has shown an astonishing functional plasticity in response to the introduction of novel drugs derived from these antibiotics. Since its discovery in the 1960s, over 170 variants of TEM-1 - with(More)
To evaluate the validity of our in vitro evolution method as a model for natural evolutionary processes, the TEM-1 beta-lactamase gene was evolved in vitro and was selected for increased resistance to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ceftazadime, and aztreonam, i.e., the "extended-spectrum" phenotype. The amino acid substitutions recovered in 10 independent in vitro(More)
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been responsible for the dissemination of numerous antimicrobial-resistance determinants throughout diverse bacterial species. The rapid and broad dissemination of resistance determinants by HGT, and subsequent selection for resistance imposed by the use of antimicrobials, threatens to undermine the usefulness of(More)
In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in(More)
We constructed a phylogenetic analysis of class A beta-lactamases and found that the blaCTX-Ms have been mobilized to plasmids approximately 10 times more frequently than other class A beta-lactamases. We also found that the blaCTX-Ms are descended from a common ancestor that was incorporated in ancient times into the chromosome of the ancestor of Kluyvera(More)
We present a protein structure-based phylogeny of Classes A, C and D of the serine beta-lactamases, and a new, detailed, sequence-based phylogeny of the Class A beta-lactamases. In addition, we discuss the historical evolution of Classes C and D. The evolutionary histories of all three classes indicate that the serine beta-lactamases are ancient enzymes,(More)
The metallo-beta-lactamases constitute Class B in the Ambler classification of beta-lactamases and are divided into three subclasses: Bl, B2, and B3. Bayesian phylogenies of the Subclass B1 + B2 and Subclass B3 metallo-beta-lactamases and their homologs show that the beta-lactam-hydrolyzing function evolved independently within each group. In Subclass B1+B2(More)
We examined Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from US hospitals for class 1 integrons. Of 320 isolates, 181 (57%) were positive; association of integrons with resistance varied by drug and organism. Thus, determining integron epidemiology will improve understanding of how antibacterial resistance determinants spread in the United States.
The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance has arisen have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing [1] and(More)
The OXA genes encode a class of b-lactamases that confer resistance to a wide range of b-lactam antibiotics. To determine whether the diversity of the OXA b-lactamases is the result of recent or ancient events, and to determine whether mobilization of the OXA genes from chromosomes to plasmids occurred recently or long ago, we have constructed a Bayesian(More)