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Measured muscle activation patterns often vary significantly from musculoskeletal model predictions that use optimization to resolve redundancy. Although experimental muscle activity exhibits both inter- and intra-subject variability we lack adequate tools to quantify the biomechanical latitude that the nervous system has when selecting muscle activation(More)
We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural(More)
Although it is possible to produce the same movement using an infinite number of different muscle activation patterns owing to musculoskeletal redundancy, the degree to which observed variations in muscle activity can deviate from optimal solutions computed from biomechanical models is not known. Here, we examined the range of biomechanically permitted(More)
Neuromusculoskeletal models solve the basic problem of determining how the body moves under the influence of external and internal forces. Existing biomechanical modeling programs often emphasize dynamics with the goal of finding a feed-forward neural program to replicate experimental data or of estimating force contributions or individual muscles. The(More)
In recent years the importance of technetium in the practice of nuclear medicine has prompted more inten sive studies of its basic chemistry. Although much of this work appears at first sight to be tangential to radio pharmaceutical chemistry, in fact a large proportion has been directed toward investigations of complexes formed in oxidation states that are(More)
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