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The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 (refs. 1-5) can bind to cells lacking the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) when it forms a complex with the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) (trans signaling). Here, we have assessed the contribution of this system to the increased resistance of mucosal T cells against apoptosis in Crohn disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Timely diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasias (IN) and colitis-associated colon carcinomas (CRC) is crucially important for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a randomized, controlled trial to test whether chromoendoscopy (CE) might facilitate early detection of IN and CRC in UC. METHODS A total of 263 patients with(More)
Azathioprine and its metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are immunosuppressive drugs that are used in organ transplantation and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn disease. However, their molecular mechanism of action is unknown. In the present study, we have identified a unique and unexpected role for azathioprine and its metabolites(More)
OBJECTIVES Detection of disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD) is of crucial importance for diagnosis and management of the disease. Noninvasive methods for monitoring are desirable and comprise hydromagnetic resonance imaging (hydro-MRI) and leukocyte scintigraphy. In addition, a recent case report indicated the potential of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(More)
The spherical end-knobs of the tentacles of capitate hydropolyps are an evolutionarily early paradigm of a chemo- and mechanosensory epithelium composed of four types of sensory cells and one type of chemo-mechanosensitive nematocytes (stinging cells), all separated by supporting cells. The epithelium discriminates sites and compositions of stimuli and(More)
AIM To define the (co-)expression pattern of target receptor-tyrosine-kinases (RTK) in human gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS The (co-)expression pattern of VEGFR1-3, PDGFR alpha/beta and EGFR1 was analyzed by RT-PCR in 51 human gastric adenocarcinomas. In addition, IHC staining was applied for confirmation of expression and analysis of RTK localisation.(More)
In capitate hydropolyps, the spherical end-knobs of the short tentacles present an exceptional concentration of sensory functions in one of the evolutionarily oldest nervous systems. The tentacular spheres are the basis of sensation and discrimination of objects and of capturing of prey-objects by the discharge of nematocytes (stinging cells). Recent(More)
TNF-alpha is a pleiotropic cytokine with strong proinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. TNF-alpha plays a critical role in many acute or chronic inflammatory diseases and anti-TNF-strategies have proven to be clinically effective. Two TNF-specific cell surface receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 have been identified and the function of these receptors and(More)
The interdisciplinary guidelines at the S3 level on the diagnosis of and therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitute an evidence- and consensus-based instrument that is aimed at improving the diagnosis of and therapy for HCC since these are very challenging tasks. The purpose of the guidelines is to offer the patient (with suspected or confirmed(More)
Stenoses are a frequent complication in patients with Crohn's disease and represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The proper assessment of the nature of a stenosis as inflammatory or fibrotic is critical for appropriate treatment, since symptomatic fibrotic stenoses require surgical resection. Standard diagnostic procedures to assess the(More)