Learn More
Venom-derived peptide toxins can modify the gating characteristics of excitatory channels in neurons. How they bind and interfere with the flow of ions without directly blocking the ion permeation pathway remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the trimeric chicken Acid-sensing ion channel 1 in complex with the highly selective gating(More)
In higher organisms the formation of the steroid scaffold is catalysed exclusively by the membrane-bound oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC; lanosterol synthase). In a highly selective cyclization reaction OSC forms lanosterol with seven chiral centres starting from the linear substrate 2,3-oxidosqualene. Valuable data on the mechanism of the complex cyclization(More)
Fatty-acid synthesis in bacteria is of great interest as a target for the discovery of antibacterial compounds. The addition of a new acetyl moiety to the growing fatty-acid chain, an essential step in this process, is catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS). It is inhibited by natural antibiotics such as cerulenin and thiolactomycin; however, these(More)
Novel drug release microimplants (0.8 x 1.14 mm; custom-made by Leiras, now Schering OY, Finland) of slow- and fast-release types containing either 0.9 mg beclomethasone or no drug at all were placed unilaterally onto the round-window membrane (RWM) of 45 guinea pigs for a maximum duration of 28 days. The following parameters were tested on days 1, 14 and(More)
Kallikreins play an important role in tumour microenvironment and as cancer biomarkers in different cancer entities. Previous studies suggested an upregulation of KLK10 and KLK6 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, we evaluated the clinicopathological role of these kallikreins and their value as biomarkers in PDAC.Differential expression(More)
Capecitabine and docetaxel have single-agent activity in upper gastrointestinal tumours, and have together demonstrated preclinical synergy and a survival benefit in breast cancer, and high response rates in first-line metastatic gastric cancer. This trial assessed the efficacy, safety and feasibility of capecitabine in combination with docetaxel in(More)
The activation of the G-protein transducin (Gt) by rhodopsin (Rho) has been intensively studied for several decades. It is the best understood example of GPCR activation mechanism and serves as a template for other GPCRs. The structure of the Rho/G protein complex, which is transiently formed during the signaling reaction, is of particular interest. It can(More)
The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab is a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal treatment of malignant ascites. In a Phase II/III trial in cancer patients (n = 258) with malignant ascites, catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit vs. paracentesis and had an acceptable safety profile. Human antimouse antibodies (HAMAs), which could be(More)
This phase II trial assessed the toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan plus docetaxel in cisplatin-pretreated oesophageal cancer. Irinotecan 160 mg m(-2) plus docetaxel 65 mg m(-2) once every 3 weeks led to severe myelosuppression in four patients, all of whom experienced neutropenic fever. After amendment of this regimen, 24 patients (male/female=18/6;(More)