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Histamine is a major inflammatory molecule released from the mast cell, and is known to activate endothelial cells. However, its ability to modulate endothelial responses to bacterial products has not been evaluated. In this study we determined the ability of histamine to modulate inflammatory responses of endothelial cells to Gram-negative and(More)
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors which initiate inflammatory responses when activated by specific serine proteases. This study was conducted to examine whether human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs) express functionally active PAR1 and PAR2 using Chang conjunctival epithelial cells as in vitro model. We performed(More)
Inflammatory responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are initiated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4, respectively. Therefore, the existence of functionally active TLR2 and TLR4 in human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCEC) are critical for the effective host defense against bacterial infections in the eye. We(More)
We develop an energy-efficient routing protocol in order to enhance the stability period of wireless sensor networks. This protocol is called weighted election protocol (WEP). It introduces a scheme to combine clustering strategy with chain routing algorithm for satisfy both energy and stable period constrains under heterogeneous environment in WSNs.(More)
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) performs energy extensive tasks and it is essential to rotate sensor nodes frequently so that Cluster Head selections can be made efficiently. In this paper, we aim to improve the lifetime of sensor network by using LEACH based protocols and efficiently utilizing the limited energy available in these sensor nodes. In sensor(More)
In this paper, we investigate the impact of Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes namely Cyclic Redundancy Code and Convolution Code on the performance of OFDM wireless communication system for speech signal transmission over both AWGN and fading (Rayleigh and Rician) channels in term of Bit Error Probability. The simulation has been done in conjunction with(More)
The impact of using wavelet based technique on the performance of a MC-CDMA wireless communication system has been investigated. The system under proposed study incorporates Walsh Hadamard codes to discriminate the message signal for individual user. A computer program written in Mathlab source code is developed and this simulation study is made with(More)
The effect of different spreading codes in DWT based MC-CDMA wireless communication system is investigated. In this paper, we present the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of different spreading codes (Walsh-Hadamard code, Orthogonal gold code and Golay complementary sequences) using Forward Error Correction (FEC) of the proposed system. The data is analyzed(More)
In this paper, the impact of Forward Error Correction (FEC) code namely Trellis code with interleaver on the performance of wavelet based MC-CDMA wireless communication system with the implementation of Alamouti antenna diversity scheme has been investigated in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) as a function of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) per bit. Simulation of(More)
A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis,(More)