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In search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the major dense line in peripheral nerve myelin we investigated mice deficient in the myelin proteins P0 and MBP. In mice lacking both molecules axons were enwrapped by myelin-like processes devoid of the major dense line, while mice deficient in either protein showed, respectively, partial(More)
Effects of ex vivo GDNF gene delivery on the degeneration of motoneurons were studied in the G1H transgenic mouse model of familial ALS carrying a human superoxide dismutase (SOD1) with a Gly93Ala mutation (Gurney et al., 1994). Retroviral vectors were made to produce human GDNF or E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) by transient transfection of the(More)
Accumulation of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in the brain is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), leading to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and memory impairment. The levels of neprilysin, a major Abeta-degrading enzyme, are decreased in AD brains and during aging. Because neprilysin cleaves Abeta in vivo, its(More)
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase gene 1 (SOD-1) are found in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Overexpression of a mutated human SOD-1 gene in mice results in neurodegenerative disease as result of motoneuron loss in lumbar spinal cord (10). Using this mouse model of FALS, we have established a quantitative assay utilizing(More)
Because glucocorticoid excess increases neuronal vulnerability, genetic variations in the glucocorticoid system may be related to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 glucocorticoid-related genes in a population of 814 AD patients and unrelated control subjects. Set-association analysis revealed that a(More)
Cystatin C is an essential secretory cofactor for neurogenesis with potent protease inhibitor activities. Polymorphisms of cystatin C are genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the L68Q mutation causes hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Icelandic type, in which cystatin C and beta-amyloid are colocalized in cortical(More)
Brain beta-amyloid plaques are principal targets for the development of treatments designed to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Intracranial injections of synthetic beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta(42)) in transgenic mice expressing the Alzheimer's disease-causing Swedish APP double mutations increased neuronal levels of neprilysin, a(More)
Axonal regrowth in the lesioned central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals is, in part, prevented by non-permissive properties of glial cells and myelin. To test if ectopic expression of the neurite outgrowth promoting recognition molecule L1 will overcome these non-permissive influences and promote neurite outgrowth, L1 was expressed in astrocytes of(More)
We generated defined neuronal loss in hippocampus of genetically identical mice by pilocarpine injections and studied the impact of these seizures on the performance of mice in spatial learning and memory. The numbers of TUNEL-positive degenerating cells paralleled the severity of the seizures. When compared to the numbers found for not-seizured control(More)
Abnormally high concentrations of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) and amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be caused either by increased generation or by decreased degradation of Abeta. Therefore, activation of mechanisms that lower brain Abeta levels is considered valuable for AD therapy. Neuronal upregulation of neprilysin (NEP) in young(More)