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BACKGROUND Activation of the peripheral innate immune system stimulates the secretion of CNS cytokines that modulate the behavioral symptoms of sickness. Excessive production of cytokines by microglia, however, may cause long-lasting behavioral and cognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent(More)
Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immune function and development of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Here we show that repeated social defeat in mice increased c-Fos staining in brain regions associated with fear and threat appraisal and promoted anxiety-like behavior in a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.(More)
The discovery of mammalian TLRs (Toll-like receptors), first identified in 1997 based on their homology with Drosophila Toll, greatly altered our understanding of how the innate immune system recognizes and responds to diverse microbial pathogens. TLRs are evolutionarily conserved type I transmembrane proteins expressed in both immune and non-immune cells,(More)
Social disruption (SDR) is a well-characterized mouse stressor that causes changes in immune cell reactivity in response to inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we found that SDR in the absence of an immune challenge induced pulmonary inflammation and increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity. The percentage of neutrophils within the lungs increased(More)
Bacterial biofilms represent a significant therapeutic challenge based on their ability to evade host immune and antibiotic-mediated clearance. Recent studies have implicated IL-1β in biofilm containment, whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) had no effect. This is intriguing, since both the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and most TLRs impinge on MyD88-dependent(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) sample their surrounding microenvironment and consequently send immunogenic or regulatory signals to T cells during DC/T cell interactions, shaping the primary adaptive immune response to infection. The microenvironment resulting from repeated social defeat increases DC co-stimulatory molecule expression and primes DCs for enhanced(More)
Biofilms are adherent communities of bacteria contained within a complex matrix. Although host immune responses to planktonic staphylococcal species have been relatively well-characterized, less is known regarding immunity to staphylococcal biofilms and how they modulate anti-bacterial effector mechanisms when organized in this protective milieu.(More)
This Letter reports a family of novel antimicrobial compounds obtained by combining peptide library screening with structure-based design. Library screening led to the identification of a human LL-37 peptide resistant to chymotrypsin. This d-amino-acid-containing peptide template was active against Escherichia coli but not methicillin-resistant(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections. Imperative to the success of S. aureus is the ability to adapt and utilize nutrients that are readily available. Genomic sequencing suggests that S. aureus has the genes required for synthesis of all twenty amino acids. However, in vitro experimentation demonstrates(More)
UNLABELLED The macrophage response to planktonic Staphylococcus aureus involves the induction of proinflammatory microbicidal activity. However, S. aureus biofilms can interfere with these responses in part by polarizing macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profibrotic phenotype. Here we demonstrate that conditioned medium from mature S. aureus biofilms(More)