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Radiation risks to astronauts depend on the microscopic fluctuations of energy absorption events in specific tissues. These fluctuations depend not only on the space environment but also on the modifications of that environment by the shielding provided by structures surrounding the astronauts and the attenuation characteristics of the astronaut's body. The(More)
One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many "hits" might(More)
When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of(More)
Graphene is an attractive material for use in optical detectors because it absorbs light from mid-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths with nearly equal strength. Graphene is particularly well suited for bolometers-devices that detect temperature-induced changes in electrical conductivity caused by the absorption of light-because its small electron heat(More)
Interplanetary space radiation consists of fully ionized nuclei of atomic elements with high energy for which only the few lowest energy ions can be stopped in shielding materials. The health risk from exposure to these ions and their secondary radiations generated in the materials of spacecraft and planetary surface enclosures is a major limiting factor in(More)
Interplanetary space radiation poses a serious health hazard in long-term manned space missions. Natural Martian surface materials are evaluated for their potential use as radiation shields for manned Mars missions. The modified radiation fluences behind various kinds of Martian rocks and regolith are determined by solving the Boltzmann equation using NASA(More)
We employ Faraday and Kerr effect spectroscopy in the infrared range to investigate the electronic structure of Ga_{1-x}Mn_{x}As near the Fermi energy. The band structure of this archetypical dilute-moment ferromagnetic semiconductor has been a matter of controversy, fueled partly by previous measurements of the unpolarized infrared absorption and their(More)
Ions of galactic origin are modified but not attenuated by the presence of shielding materials. Indeed, the number of particles and the absorbed energy behind most shield materials increases as a function of shield thickness. The modification of the galactic cosmic ray composition upon interaction with shielding is the only effective means of providing(More)
The photovoltaic and bolometric photoresponse in gapped bilayer graphene was investigated by optical and transport measurements. A pulse coincidence technique at 1.5 μm was used to measure the response times as a function of temperature. The bolometric and photovoltaic response times were found to be identical implying that the photovoltaic response is also(More)
Introduction: Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with(More)