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OBJECTIVE To determine the willingness of populations at high risk of HIV-1 infection to participate in HIV vaccine efficacy trials, determine factors influencing decision-making, and evaluate knowledge levels of vaccine trial concepts. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS HIV-1-negative homosexual men, male and female injecting drug users and(More)
To estimate interest in HIV preventive vaccine trials, we administered questionnaires to two otherwise demographically similar cohorts of older (mean 40 years) and younger (mean 23 years) gay men in Boston. Questionnaire responses were linked to concurrent behavioral and demographic data. Univariate analyses, performed separately for older and younger(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Some recent studies in older, largely white populations suggest that vitamin D, measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], is important for cognition, but such results may be affected by reverse causation. Measuring 25(OH)D in late middle age before poor cognition affects behavior may provide clearer results. METHODS This was a(More)
In the German lung cancer screening trial LUSI, smoking cessation counseling (SCC) was offered to all participants at time of randomization, and smoking habits were asked for within annual questionnaire inquiries. We analyzed the smoking habits of the participants within the first 2 years of follow-up and especially the potential effect of the SCC on these(More)
Recent studies have reported on the utility of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) in surveys of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors that involve a single assessment. This paper reports the results of a test of ACASI within a longitudinal study of HIV risk behavior and infection. Study participants (gay men (n = 1,974) and(More)
To assess the prevalence and the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of anal sex in a cohort of HIV-seronegative U.S. women at high risk of HIV exposure, we administered a risk assessment using audio computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI). Of 1268 sexually active women, 432 (32%) reported anal sex in the previous 6 months. Compared with women who(More)
Condom failure (slippage or breakage) has been shown to be associated with HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), but predictors of failure have been poorly elucidated. Of 2592 HIV-seronegative MSM participants in the HIV Network for Prevention Trials (HIVNET) multisite Vaccine Preparedness Study who reported condom use for anal sex in(More)
BACKGROUND Home specimen collection and telephone counseling (HSCTC) may be a convenient new method for detection of HIV infection among cohorts at high-risk for HIV. GOAL To evaluate attitudes about HSCTC among participants, HIV counselors, and community advisory board members associated with a national multisite study of persons at high risk for HIV. (More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Methods of HIV and STD prevention, which can be controlled by the receptive partner, are a high priority for research and development. Studies on the safety of Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on the vaginal mucosa have yielded conflicting results. No Phase I study has evaluated the effect of N-9 on the rectal mucosa. GOALS To assess the safety(More)