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Tyrosyl phosphorylation, which is controlled by protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), regulates numerous cellular processes. Altered expression and/or mutations in PTKs are linked to many forms of cancer, yet until recently little was known about the roles of PTPs in normal cells or in cancer. Earlier work established(More)
PTPN11, which encodes the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, is mutated in approximately 35% of patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and at a lower incidence in other neoplasms. To model JMML pathogenesis, we generated knockin mice that conditionally express the leukemia-associated mutant Ptpn11(D61Y). Expression of Ptpn11(D61Y) in all(More)
Noonan syndrome is a common human autosomal dominant birth defect, characterized by short stature, facial abnormalities, heart defects and possibly increased risk of leukemia. Mutations of Ptpn11 (also known as Shp2), which encodes the protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, occur in approximately 50% of individuals with Noonan syndrome, but their molecular,(More)
The SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 (PTPN11) is required for growth factor and cytokine signaling. Germline Shp2 mutations cause Noonan Syndrome (NS), which is associated with increased risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Somatic Shp2 mutations occur in sporadic JMML and other leukemias. We found that Shp2 mutants associated with(More)
The BCR/ABL oncogene causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in humans and a CML-like disease, as well as lymphoid leukemia, in mice. p210 BCR/ABL is an activated tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates itself and several cellular signaling proteins. The autophosphorylation site tyrosine 177 binds the adaptor Grb2 and helps determine the lineage and severity(More)
Abnormal protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) cause many human leukemias. For example, BCR/ABL causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), whereas FLT3 mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia. The ABL inhibitor Imatinib (Gleevec, STI571) has remarkable efficacy for treating chronic phase CML, and FLT3 inhibitors (e.g., PKC412) show(More)
A somatic point mutation (V617F) in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase was found in a majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. However, contribution of the JAK2V617F mutation in these 3 clinically distinct myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) remained unclear. To investigate the role of JAK2V617F in the(More)
Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a potentially useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However mTOR antagonists used as single agents are not likely to result in dramatic clinical responses, so that it is useful to identify prospective agents that might be useful in combination. We(More)
The p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3k) forms a complex with a protein network associated with oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) such as BCR/ABL, TEL/ABL, TEL/JAK2, TEL/PDGFbetaR, and NPM/ALK, resulting in constitutive activation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI-3k. Introduction of point mutations in the N-terminal and(More)
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