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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exert antitumor activity can do so by virtue of their effector function and/or their ability to signal growth arrest or cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that mAbs which have little or no signaling activity-i.e., anti-CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22 and Her-2-can become potent antitumor agents when they are converted into(More)
Ricin A chain-containing immunotoxins (IT-As) specific for the human B-cell antigen, CD22, were prepared from 4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or their Fab' fragments: RFB4, HD6, UV22-I and UV22-2. The ITs were tested for their ability to kill cells from the Burkitt lymphoma line, Daudi, the pre-B-cell leukemia line, NALM-6, and the myeloma cell line, ARH-77.(More)
Her-2 (p185(erbB-2)) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is encoded by the Her-2/neu proto-oncogene. Her-2 is overexpressed on 30% of highly malignant breast cancers. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Her-2 inhibit the growth of Her-2-overexpressing tumor cells and this occurs by a variety of mechanisms. One such MAb, Herceptin(More)
In 1997, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (Rituxan) was approved for the treatment of low-grade/follicular B-cell lymphoma. Rituxan has a long half-life and low immunogenicity, and it mediates effector function. Rituxan induces apoptosis in some tumor cell lines in vitro. Previous studies with mAbs that react with neoplastic B cells have(More)
A human Burkitt lymphoma (Daudi) has been grown in the mutant mouse called C.B-17 SCID. Twenty-eight days after s.c. injection of Daudi cells, a palpable tumor grew only at the site of injection in all injected mice. In contrast, after intravenous (i.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, macroscopic, disseminated tumors developed. Following i.v.(More)
The CD22 antigen is expressed on the surface of normal human B cells and some neoplastic B cell lines and tumors. Previous cross-blocking studies using a panel of monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies have defined four epitope groups, termed A-D. In the present studies, we have further dissected the epitopes recognized by four monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies(More)
The results of Phase I/II clinical trials indicate that ricin A-chain-containing immunotoxins cause vascular leak syndrome, characterized by hypoalbuminemia with resultant weight gain and edema. Vascular leak syndrome may be a dose-limiting factor during treatment with ricin A-chain-containing immunotoxins. In this report, we determined the effect of ricin(More)
The large scale preparation of two second generation immunotoxins containing murine monoclonal antibodies and deglycosylated ricin A chain is described. The procedure for the preparation of immunotoxins consists of the derivatization of antibody with SMPT and reduction of dgA with DTT followed by their reaction to establish a hindered interchain disulfide(More)
Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice injected intravenously with a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (Daudi) develop disseminated lymphoma (SCID/Daudi), which is fatal in 100% of the mice. Early treatment of these mice with either an immunotoxin (IT) cocktail (consisting of anti-CD19-ricin A chain plus anti-CD22-ricin A chain) or chemotherapy(More)
Vascular leak syndrome is a major and often dose-limiting side effect of immunotoxins and cytokines. We postulated that this syndrome is initiated by damage to vascular endothelial cells. Our earlier studies identified a three-amino acid motif that is shared by toxins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, and interleukin-2, all of which cause this problem. We(More)