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The oligodendrocyte lineage genes Olig1 and Olig2 encode related bHLH proteins that are coexpressed in neural progenitors. Targeted disruption of these two genes sheds light on the ontogeny of oligodendroglia and genetic requirements for their development from multipotent CNS progenitors. Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte and motor neuron specification(More)
 Motivated by experimental studies of insects, we propose a model for legged locomotion in the horizontal plane. A three-degree-of freedom, energetically conservative, rigid-body model with a pair of compliant virtual legs in intermittent contact with the ground allows us to study how dynamics depends on parameters such as mass, moment of inertia, leg(More)
There has been a consistent gap in understanding how TNF-α neutralization affects the disease state of arthritis patients so rapidly, considering that joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic condition with structural changes. We thus hypothesized that neutralization of TNF-α acts through the CNS before directly affecting joint inflammation.(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS) more than 95% of the patients have positive oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous studies have reported differences between patients with and without OCB mainly with regard to clinical parameters such as age, gender, disease duration, and clinical severity. However, several MRI characteristics have(More)
The viroporin activity of the E protein from murine hepatitis virus (MHV), a member of the coronaviruses, was analyzed. Viroporins are a growing family of viral proteins able to enhance membrane permeability, promoting virus budding. Initially, the MHV E gene was inducibly expressed in Escherichia coli cells, leading to the arrest of bacterial growth, cell(More)
PURPOSE Valproate (VPA) interferes with mitochondrial metabolism causing hyperammonemia, thereby shifting the balance reaction of glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) toward Gln. In this study we wanted to determine whether metabolic changes could be reproduced in VPA-treated patients with epilepsy and whether the results differed from those known in chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This study assesses whether magnetization transfer (MT) imaging provides additive information to conventional MRI in brain tumors. METHODS MT data of 26 patients with neoplastic and metastatic brain tumors were analyzed at 1.5 T. For the 3 largest tumor groups investigated in this study--glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), meningiomas,(More)
Compared to standard spoiled gradient echo (SPGR)-methods, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) provides quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) images with increased resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in clinically feasible acquisition times. The aim of this study was to acquire 3D high-resolution qMT-data to create standardized(More)