Learn More
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding non-neuronal cells. Of particular interest are molecular signals that play a role in the overall orchestration of this multifaceted cellular response. Here we investigated the function of interleukin-6 (IL6), a multifunctional neurotrophin and cytokine rapidly expressed in the(More)
Virological analysis of fatal influenza cases in the United Kingdom during the early wave of influenza in winter 2010/11 The 2010/11 winter influenza season is underway in the United Kingdom, with co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)2009 (antigenically similar to the current 2010/11 vaccine strain), influenza B (mainly B/ Victoria/2/87 lineage, similar to(More)
The emergence of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus provided a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a pandemic virus following its introduction into the human population. Virological and clinical surveillance in the UK were comprehensive during the first and second waves of the pandemic in 2009, with extensive laboratory confirmation of infection(More)
We describe the first confirmed person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus that occurred in a hematology unit in the United Kingdom. Eleven cases of (H1N1) 2009 virus infection were identified, of which, ten were related as shown by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. H275Y(More)
The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza(More)
  • E Mclean, R Pebody, B Paterson, B Smyth, C Kearns, J Mcmenamin +38 others
  • 2009
Following the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus in North America in April 2009, the first UK cases were reported on 27 April 2009. Several existing and new surveillance systems were used to investigate the first cases, to monitor the unfolding pandemic and to measure the impact and effectiveness of the various countermeasures that(More)
The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults.
BACKGROUND Transporting over two billion passengers per year, global airline travel has the potential to spread emerging infectious diseases, both via transportation of infectious cases and through in-flight transmission. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance recommends contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of a case of influenza(More)
During the Northern Hemisphere winter of 2003-2004 the emergence of a novel influenza antigenic variant, A/Fujian/411/2002-like(H3N2), was associated with an unusually high number of fatalities in children. Seventeen fatal cases in the UK were laboratory confirmed for Fujian/411-like viruses. To look for phylogenetic patterns and genetic markers that might(More)