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OBJECTIVE The lactulose H2-breath test is the most widely used non-invasive approach for evaluation of orocoecal transit time (OCTT). In the present study, doubly-labelled lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide (DLLU) was synthesized to investigate the OCTT in comparison to the conventional lactulose H2-breath test. Additionally the bacterial breakdown rate (BBR) and(More)
Studies on the behavior of Anopheles darlingi were conducted at a site along the Ituxi River, Amazonas, Brazil. Patterns of host-seeking activity inside and outside a single-walled house both presented activity peaks at sunset and sunrise, but biting activity inside a four-walled house peaked after sunset then gradually decreased during the night. Major(More)
Tryptophan (TRP) is the limiting amino acid in low-protein infant formulas. This is mainly due to lower alpha-lactalbumin (alpha LA) content in cow's milk whey as compared with human milk protein. To study the effect of alpha LA-enrichment on the TRP supply, cross-over studies were carried out in 20 healthy infants up to 3 months of age. In this study, two(More)
Gammadelta T cells are innate immune cells that participate in host responses against many pathogens and cancers. Recently, phosphoantigen-based drugs, capable of expanding gammadelta T cells in vivo, entered clinical trials with the goal of enhancing innate immune system functions. Potential shortcomings of these drugs include the induction of(More)
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells committed to the neutrophil/granulocyte lineage. Recombinant G-CSF (rG-CSF) is routinely used in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. Chronic(More)
Innate immune cell stimulation represents a complementary approach to vaccines and antimicrobial drugs to counter infectious disease. We have used assays of macrophage activation and in vitro and in vivo phase II Coxiella burnetii infection models to compare and contrast the activity of a novel innate immune cell agonist, securinine, with known TLR(More)