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The binding of lipophilic hormones, retinoids and vitamins to members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily modifies the DNA-binding and transcriptional properties of these receptors, resulting in the activation or repression of target genes. Ligand binding induces conformational changes in nuclear receptors and promotes their association with a diverse group(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors controlling the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARs activate gene transcription in response to a variety of compounds including hypolipidemic drugs as well as natural fatty acids. From the plethora of PPAR activators, Scatchard analysis of receptor-ligand(More)
A number of proteins have been rendered functionally oestrogen-dependent by fusion with the hormone-binding domain of the oestrogen receptor. There are, however, several significant disadvantages with such fusion proteins. First, their use in cells in vitro requires phenol red-free medium and laborious stripping of steroid hormones from serum in order to(More)
We show that a number of alkylphenolic compounds, used in a variety of commercial products and found in river water, are estrogenic in fish, birds, and mammals. 4-Octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenoxycarboxylic acid, and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate were each capable of stimulating vitellogenin gene expression in trout hepatocytes, gene transcription(More)
A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these(More)
A conserved region in the hormone-dependent activation domain AF2 of nuclear receptors plays an important role in transcriptional activation. We have characterized a novel nuclear protein, RIP140, that specifically interacts in vitro with this domain of the estrogen receptor. This interaction was increased by estrogen, but not by anti-estrogens and the in(More)
The estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in two forms, ERalpha and ERbeta. Here we show that ERalpha and ERbeta, expressed both in vitro and in vivo, form heterodimers which bind to DNA with an affinity (Kd of approximately 2 nM) similar to that of ERalpha and greater than that of ERbeta homodimers. Mutation analysis of the hormone binding domain of ERalpha(More)
We have used a series of human estrogen receptor (ER) mutants to evaluate the cell- and promoter-specific transcriptional activities of the TAF1 and TAF2 transactivation regions within the human ER. We show that the manifestation of TAF1 or TAF2 function depends strongly upon promoter context; on certain promoters, both the TAF1 and TAF2 activators are(More)
Sewage, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals, is considered to be a major source of environmental pollution. A random screen of 20 organic man-made chemicals present in liquid effluents revealed that half appeared able to interact with the estradiol receptor. This was demonstrated by their ability to inhibit binding of 17 beta-estradiol to(More)
The oestrogen receptor stimulates transcription by means of at least two distinct transcriptional activation domains, TAF-1 in the N-terminal domain and TAF-2 in the hormone binding domain. Here we show that TAF-2 activity requires a region in the C-terminus of the hormone binding domain between residues 538 and 552 in the mouse oestrogen receptor which is(More)