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The coexistence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and cholecystokinin (CCK)- or somatostatin-immunoreactive material in the same neurons was studied in the hippocampus and visual cortex of the cat. One-micrometer-thick serial sections of the same neuron were reacted to reveal different antigens by the unlabeled antibody(More)
Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) of the mammalian vestibulocerebellum receive mossy fiber projections primarily from the vestibular ganglion and vestibular nuclei. Recently, the axons of UBCs have been shown to generate an extensive system of cortex-intrinsic mossy fibers, which resemble traditional cerebellar mossy fiber afferents and synapse with granule cell(More)
The ultrastructural features and synaptic relationships of cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive cells of rat and cat hippocampus were studied using the unlabeled antibody immunoperoxidase technique and correlated light and electron microscopy. CCK-positive perikarya of variable shape and size were distributed in all layers and were particularly concentrated(More)
By means of Golgi staining and gold-toning, we have found an interneuron in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus which forms synapses exclusively on the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. An individual initial segment receives up to 30 symmetrical synapses from one axo-axonic cell. Each axo-axonic cell is in synaptic contact with the axon(More)
The unipolar brush cell (UBC) is a type of glutamatergic interneuron in the granular layer of the cerebellum. The UBC brush and a single mossy fiber (MF) terminal contact each other within a cerebellar glomerulus, forming a giant synapse. Many UBCs receive input from extrinsic MFs, whereas others are innervated by intrinsic mossy terminals formed by the(More)
Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned preparations of cat hippocampus were studied under the light and electron microscope in order to characterize synapses in contact with the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. The initial segment of the axon emits spine-like appendages and it was sometimes seen to be in apparent contact with thin varicose fibers that(More)
We treated 149 patients meeting criteria for age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) for 12 weeks with a formulation of phosphatidylserine (100 mg BC-PS tid) or placebo. Patients treated with the drug improved relative to those treated with placebo on performance tests related to learning and memory tasks of daily life. Analysis of clinical subgroups(More)
Different isoforms of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) mediate glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles of excitatory neurons. There is agreement that the VGLUTs are differentially expressed in brain, and that two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are localized to excitatory axon terminals in the cerebellar cortex. While granule cells express solely(More)
The unipolar brush cells (UBCs), a class of neurons recently identified in the granular layer of the vestibulocerebellum, receive excitatory synaptic input from mossy fibers (MFs) in the form of a giant glutamatergic synapse. UBCs are provided with axons that bear synaptic endings situated at the center of glomeruli, similar to cerebellar MF afferents. A(More)