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Recently, we have reported that melittin, a major toxic peptide of the whole bee venom, plays a central role in production of local inflammation, nociception and hyperalgesia following the experimental honeybee's sting. However, the exact peripheral mechanisms underlying melittin-induced multiple pain-related behaviors are still less characterized. In the(More)
Evidence suggests that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain, and that various stimuli, for example, ischemia/hypoxia, enhance the generation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and their migration into the olfactory bulb. In a mouse stroke model, focal ischemia results in activation of neural progenitor cells followed by(More)
A wide variety of human and animal experiments suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of the key brain substrates subserving higher order processing of noxious information. However, no sufficient data are now available regarding the mediation by ACC of different levels of pain processing as well as its potential descending modulation of(More)
Activity levels of cytochrome oxidase, acid phosphatase, and NADPH diaphorase were examined in the perikarya of immunohistochemically identified Renshaw cells from sections of rat lumbar spinal cord. Renshaw cell profiles were identified on the basis of their characteristic anti-gephyrin-immunofluorescent labelling. Intrasomatic densities of enzyme(More)
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is characterized by the development of inflammatory response, in which vascular macrophages and endogenous microglia are involved. Recent studies showed marked induction of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) after ischemic/reperfusion injury and its localization in microglia, but the molecular mechanism(s) of(More)
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase is a key enzyme in synthesis of prostaglandin D. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase is expressed in microglia of the developing mouse brain. This study determined the serial changes and cellular localization of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, and its role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using(More)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for stroke and it exacerbates tissue damage after ischemic insult. Diabetes is one of the important causes of the progression of white matter lesion, however, the pathological mechanisms remain unclear. The present study evaluated the influences of type 2 DM on ischemic subcortical white matter injury and the(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release to nerve terminals in the central nervous system is crucial in synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity. However, BDNF release peripherally from primary afferent neurons has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that BDNF is synthesized by primary afferent neurons located in the dorsal(More)
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