M. Fraser Bransby

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Root growth in the field is often slowed by a combination of soil physical stresses, including mechanical impedance, water stress, and oxygen deficiency. The stresses operating may vary continually, depending on the location of the root in the soil profile, the prevailing soil water conditions, and the degree to which the soil has been compacted. The(More)
The three notorious earthquakes of 1999 in Turkey Kocaeli and Düzce and Taiwan Chi-Chi , having offered numerous examples of surface fault rupturing underneath civil engineering structures, prompted increased interest in the subject. This paper develops a nonlinear finite-element methodology to study dip–slip “normal” and “reverse” fault rupture propagation(More)
Root growth is a highly dynamic process influenced by genetic background and environment. This paper reports the development of R scripts that enable root growth kinematic analysis that complements a new motion analysis tool: PlantVis. Root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a plasma membrane targeted GFP (C24 and Columbia 35S:LTI6b-EGFP) was imaged(More)
Biomechanical properties of cereal root systems largely control both resistance to root lodging and their ability to stabilise soil. Abiotic stresses can greatly modify root system growth and form. In this paper the effect of waterlogging and moderate mechanical impedance on root biomechanics is studied for both lateral roots and the main axes of barley.(More)
Observations after earthquakes where surface fault ruptures crossed engineering facilities reveal that some structures survived the rupture almost unscathed. In some cases, the rupture path appears to divert, “avoiding” the structure. Such observations point to an interaction between the propagating rupture, the soil, and the foundation. This paper i(More)
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) quantifies displacement of patches of pixels between successive images. We evaluated PIV as a tool for microscopists by measuring displacements of cells and of a surrounding granular medium in confocal laser scanning microscopy images of Arabidopsis thaliana roots labeled with cell-membrane targeted green fluorescent(More)
Enhanced Loran (eLoran) is rapidly emerging as the primary GNSS backup for the new, global, maritime e- Navigation concept. Europe was ready to turn off all the Loran transmitters at the end of 2005. However, an increased understanding of GNSS vulnerability and a growing appreciation of eLoran's role within e-Navigation has resulted not only in a(More)
eLoran has the potential to act as a cross-platform backup radio-navigation system to GPS to provide Position Navigation and Timing. As service providers of differential-eLoran for maritime navigation, the General Lighthouse Authorities of the UK and Ireland (the GLAs) must ensure that the system meets the internationally agreed standards for Accuracy,(More)
Over the past few decades, earthquake engineering research mainly focused on the effects of strong seismic shaking. After the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey and Taiwan, and thanks to numerous cases where fault rupture caused substantial damage to structures, the importance of faulting-induced deformation has re-emerged. This paper, along with its companion(More)
The biomechanics of root systems influence plant lodging resistance and soil structural stabilisation. Tissue age has the potential to influence root biomechanical properties through changes in cell wall chemistry, root anatomy and morphology. Within a root system the internal structures of roots are known to vary markedly within different root types.(More)